Was Yahweh originally a Vulcan god

The Bible

Origin, world of thought, theology ...

Let us now assume that individual pre-Israelite groups had already settled in the land of Canaan, while other groups of what would become Israel still lived for some time on the edge of the cultivated land as semi-nomads.

This is likely to be the historical background for the events described in the book of Exodus.

Let us now turn to the events described there about the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt. To this end, we leave out of consideration the groups that have already settled down and above all follow what happened to the groups that still belonged to the semi-nomadic groups.

1. Semi-nomad groups in Egypt

In the already mentioned little historical creed in Dtn 26,5 there is the statement that the ancestors of Israel were enslaved and oppressed by the Egyptians, but that Yahweh brought them out

"... with a strong hand and an outstretched arm, under great horrors, under signs and wonders." (Dtn 26.8.)

a. Famine forces semi-nomads to move to Egypt

We have already seen that the stay of semi-nomads in Egypt was something completely normal. Pasture-changing semi-nomads moved to the fertile Nile Delta in the dry season in order to feed their herds there.

But nomads, who normally found refuge from the dry season in the area of ​​Palestine, could occasionally be forced to move to Egypt.

If there was no rainfall in the area of ​​Palestine during the winter, there was inevitably a famine. The country was then unable to offer the semi-nomads who migrated from the desert in the dry season no opportunity to live.

Then the only way out was to move to the fertile Nile valley, which was independent of rain.

We must therefore see the stay in Egypt of Israel's ancestors in the context of these living conditions of pasture-changing shepherds.

b. Biblical evidence

At some points in the patriarchal narrative, such incidents seem to be presupposed.

Gen 26: 1 says:

"A famine broke out in the land, different from the previous one in the time of Abraham. Isaac went to Gerar to Abimelech, king of the Philistines. The Lord appeared to him and said: Do not go down to Egypt, stay in the land, I promise you. " (Gen 26: 1-2.)

The normal reaction to this famine would have been to move to Egypt.

In the 41st and 42nd chapter of Genesis it says:

"When the famine came over the whole country, Joseph opened all the granaries and sold grain to the Egyptians. But the hunger in Egypt became more and more oppressive. All the world came to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph, because the hunger was always growing more oppressive all over the world. When Jacob learned that there was grain for sale in Egypt, he said to his sons: Why are you looking at each other like that? " (Gen 41,56-42,1.)

So everyone comes to Egypt to buy grain there during the famine. And Jacob in Palestine sends his sons there too, because apparently there is no other option.

In these passages the old memory was found that as a member of a semi-nomad group one could find help in Egypt when there was no longer any possibility in Palestine to feed oneself and the herds.

Also Gen 12.20ff; 43.1ff and 46.1ff could be cited here.

Such a famine is likely to have been the historical background for the ancestors of Israel's stay in Egypt as described in the Bible.

c. Egyptian sources

Such incidents can also be proven in Egyptian sources. An inscription from around 1350 BC. BC reported that a group of semi-nomads

"... who did not know where to live came to ask for a home in Pharaoh's territory." ⋅2⋅

Around 1200 BC An Egyptian border official reported to his superiors that he had allowed Bedouin tribes from the steppe to pass through the border fortresses

"... to keep them and their cattle alive on the great estate of Pharaoh, the good sun of every country." ⋅3⋅

d. Groups of nomads are drawn into bondage

Normally, such nomad groups looking for help naturally returned to their traditional hiking area when the rainy season began.

But now it could happen that groups of semi-nomads, who sought refuge in Egypt from a famine, were used by the Egyptians for services and reluctantly detained as cheap labor.

We have an extra-biblical source for this too. In an Egyptian letter from the 13th century BC Chr. People are mentioned

"... who pull stones for the large pylon (= entrance tower of an Egyptian temple) at Ramses Miamun." ⋅4⋅

Such texts prove that there was compulsory labor for Egyptian temples.

But how do we now know that the people named in this letter were actually nomad groups? It has to do with the name of these people.

They are named in these Egyptian documents with a word that has the following form: "<pr ".

2. The Hebrews

a. The ancestors of Israel belong to the "Habiru"

As with all Egyptian texts, we no longer know how this word was pronounced, but the three consonants "<At that time we did not only encounter pr "in Egypt. They encountered the entire area of ​​Egypt, Syria / Palestine and Mesopotamia. And always in the same form.

  • In documents from Mesopotamia we find people who are called "Habiru".
  • The expression occurs in similar forms in Hittite and Ugaritic texts.
  • And in Ex 2,11, a biblical source, we find the word אִישׁ־עִבְרִי [">isch-<ibri "], which is the root of the word עבר [Ajin - beth - resch].

Translated into German, this passage from the book Exodus means:

"At that time when Moses was growing up, he went out to his brothers and looked at their labor. And there he saw, like an Egyptian, a אִישׁ־עִבְרִי [">isch-<ibri "], (i.e. a man from the עִבְרִי ["<ibri "]), one of his brothers, struck." (Ex 2.11)

Behind this expression עִבְרִי ["<ibri "] is the same word as in the Egyptian documents. We have the same word root here as in the Mesopotamian expression" Habiru ".

We usually translate this word עבר ["<br "] in German with the expression" Hebrews ". A word that is used again and again in the Bible from Ex 1 onwards in connection with bondage in Egypt.

The Israelites knew that they belonged to the "Hebrews" or to the "Habiru".

What kind of people are these now? Who was called "Habiru" at that time? And why does this word suddenly appear in texts from all areas of the so-called fertile crescent?

b. Who or what were the "Habiru"?

It can be shown that with the word "Habiru" in all these sources no national or ethnic entity can be meant. The "Habiru" are therefore not a people of their own.

This expression seems to be primarily a term for a sociological quantity. "Habiru" seems to be the name for non-sedentary groups of people of inferior rights. And thus also non-sedentary groups who have to do services for others.

In connection with the second Aramaic traveling wave, this phenomenon, that nomad groups invaded the area of ​​the individual high cultures, appears to have occurred throughout the fertile crescent. These non-sedentary groups were viewed by the cultivated land residents as people of inferior rights. They were called "Habiru" or "Hebrews" with the expression of the Bible.

And apparently it also happened again and again that such groups were used for services.

c. The chronological classification of the Hebrews' stay in Egypt

Mummy of Pharaoh Ramses II (1301-1234 BC) in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

License: Speedster, Ramses2 (2), CC BY-SA 4.0)

In Ex 1,11 it is reported that the Hebrews, i.e. those nomadic groups who were counted among the ancestors of Israel, were used to build the cities of Pitom and Ramses. It says there:

"So they put bondmen over it [= the people of the Israelites] so that they oppressed it with their slave labor. It had to build storage cities for the Pharaoh, namely Pitom and Ramses" (Ex 1,11.)

This information is particularly important to us. Not only does it allow us to conclude that the ancestors of Israel were brought in to do such compulsory labor, it also allows us to precisely time this slave stay of the Hebrews in Egypt.

The exact information in Ex 1,11 suggests that the pharaoh of this suppression was Ramses II (1301-1234 BC).

Archaeological excavations and literary reports show that the cities of Pitom and Ramses, which Ex 1,11 mentions, were expanded at the time of Ramses II. Before and after his time, they were hardly populated. This allows the events behind the Book of Exodus to be narrowed down quite precisely in terms of time.

It is therefore quite likely that around the middle of the 13th century BC a pre-Israelite group was detained in Egypt and used for slave labor.

3. The figure of Moses

We have to go into a little more detail about these events in Egypt. The central tenet of Israeli belief is ultimately connected with them.

It is an ancient and frequently recurring statement in the Old Testament that Yahweh delivered Israel from Egypt. This belief is found z. B. at the central point in the introduction of the Decalogue, the Ten Commandments:

"I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, the slave house." (Ex 20.2.)

It is interesting to note that the salvation from Egypt was linked to the person of Moses from the beginning. But who was this man?

a. The historicity of Moses

The historicity of Moses was - like that of the patriarchal figures - extremely controversial. In current research, there is again a tendency to start from a concrete historical personality.

There is a lot to suggest that he is a historical personality. And there are also some indications that his person was related to the events in Egypt.

b. The name

The name "Mose" already indicates this.

This name is the short form of a compound Egyptian name. It has the same consonant sequence - namely "ms" - as the Egyptian word for "son".

This word appears frequently in Egyptian names, e.g. B. in Thutmose, Amose, Ramose and Ramses.

The Old Testament tradition also expressly refers to the Egyptian origin of the name of Moses (Ex 2.10).

c. Moses in Egyptian service

It is now very likely that this Moses belonged to a group of pre-Israelite shepherds who had come into contact with Egypt.

The story of its exposure in the rush basket should not be confused with a historical report. This is a well-known topos that has been repeatedly entered into the biography of great figures. It is about the wonderful salvation of the future Savior.

The Egyptian name of Moses could be an indication that this Moses was in Egyptian service. In Egyptian sources it is proven that foreigners could well be in Egyptian service.

It is important for our considerations that such foreigners who entered Egyptian service were often given an Egyptian name in this context. Perhaps this is where the name of Moses originated.

d. The escape to the Midianites

According to the biblical tradition, Moses came into conflict with the Egyptians, fled out of the country to the Midianite area and there married the daughter of a Midianite priest (Ex 2).

There are parallels in Egyptian texts for such processes as well. In the well-known story of Sinuhe the Egyptian z. B. describes how he fled abroad as a result of a conflict with the Pharaoh and got married there. ⋅5⋅

The tradition of Moses' marriage to the Midianites must also be very old and therefore very reliable.

Later on, the relationship between the Israelites and the Midianites was extremely tense. This can be seen in Ri 6, for example.

In later times it would hardly have been possible to establish a family relationship between the Midianites and a figure as important for the Israelite tradition as Moses. This strongly suggests that it is rooted in historical facts.

4. The God Yahweh

According to Old Testament tradition, Moses received a decisive revelation from Yahweh in the Midianite realm (Ex 3.1ff).

Who was this God Yahweh, how did Moses come to believe in this God and why did this happen to the Midianites?

The Bible clearly answers this question. But if you don't just want to blindly follow this report, if you don't confuse it with a historical report, then a wealth of questions arise. I would like to pursue some of them here.

Did faith in Yahweh really begin only with a revelation to Moses? So did the god "Yahweh" suddenly play a role from one day to the next?

Given the current state of scientific research, this does not seem to be the case. It even seems very likely that the belief in Yahweh was not simply imparted through Moses alone. There are indications that the worship of Yahweh itself predates Moses. So that Moses can already build on an older tradition here.

Long before the individual pre-Israelite groups settled down, a god by the name of Yahweh seems to have been worshiped.

a. Yahweh, the God of Sinai

A reference to this can be found in Ri 5.5 and Ps 68.9. The apparently very ancient name of God can be found there

"Yahweh (the God) of Sinai" (Judge 5,5).

Dtn 33.2 is also characterized by the phrase

"Yahweh comes from Sinai" (Deut. 33,2.)

this God through his assignment to Sinai (cf. Hab 3,3).

We have here - as can be shown - very old pieces of text. Ri 5,5 belongs to the so-called Debora song, one of the oldest texts in the Bible.

According to this tradition, however, Sinai seems to have been venerated as the actual residence of Yahweh.

Now one can calmly ask oneself whether this old tradition, this old memory that Yahweh lives on Sinai, has not influenced the Exodus account. It is possible that this very old tradition has found expression here.

Perhaps the account of the book of Exodus only allows Israel to stop at Mount Sinai after leaving Egypt, because that is Mount Yahweh. It is possible that nothing else lives in this story about the stay in the desert on Sinai than the memory of Sinai as the former place of Yahweh's real worship.

b. How should such an early veneration of Yahweh be thought of?

What then would one have to imagine by such an early veneration of the Lord? How should one imagine these origins of the Yahweh religion?

Basically one can say that there were groups of semi-nomads who held their cultic inspections on or on mountains.

Mountains have always played a major role in the history of religion. I just need to remind you of the many sacred mountains in different cultures.

One of these groups, which may have had their wandering area in the area of ​​the desert south of Palestine, seems to have worshiped a god on or on Mount Sinai who was now called "Yahweh".

The exact location of this Mount Sinai can no longer be clearly identified today. Today's tradition, which seeks Mount Sinai on the Sinai Peninsula, is certainly of more recent origin and influenced by the current form of the Exodus tradition.

But in the current form of the biblical tradition we have an indication of what kind of mountain the actual Sinai could originally have been. Ex 19: 16-19 is particularly important here:

"On the third day, when morning came, thunder and lightning broke out, a heavy cloud lay over the mountain, and a mighty trumpet sounded. All the people that were in the camp shook. Moses led the people out of the camp To meet God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. Mount Sinai was shrouded in smoke because the Lord had come down on it in fire. The smoke rose like the smoke of a furnace. The whole mountain shook violently. The sound of trumpets rose stronger and stronger. Moses spoke, and God answered him in thunder. " (Ex 19: 16-19.)

This section belongs to the oldest layer of the tradition of the divine apparition at Sinai. And here it is noticeable that the Yahweh theophany, i.e. the appearance of Yahweh, is described as if it were a volcanic eruption.

It is possible that a memory has actually been preserved here that the Sinai was originally a volcano that was perhaps temporarily active, a volcano that was the original place of Yahweh's denial. The early veneration of Yahweh could then be connected at the beginning with the eruptions of this volcano.

In Judges 5,4-5, again a text from the Debora song - as already mentioned one of the oldest texts in the Old Testament - we find a hint that seems to support this assumption. It says there:

"When you went out, Yahweh, from Seir, approached from Edom's field, the earth shook, the heavens trembled, the clouds broke out in water. The mountains melted away before Yahweh, before Yahweh, the God of Israel." (Judg. 5.4-5.)

Here it is said that Yahweh went out from Seir. Seïr is a mountainous country east of the Arabah, where there were actually active volcanoes in historical times. Perhaps you have to look for the actual Mount Sinai and thus the origin of the worship of Yahweh here.

c. The meal on the Gottesberg

But why do you look for Mount Sinai today on the now so-called Sinai Peninsula?

Here it is perhaps important that not only Sinai plays a role in the Exodus, but also a mountain that plays a role Gottesberg is called.

There seems to be a different tradition here. It is likely to have existed alongside the older (Yahwist) Sinai tradition and was originally independent.

She also speaks of a god being worshiped on a mountain, but this is not about a volcanic eruption, but about a meal that is held on this mountain. Ex 24,9-11 reads:

"Then Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu and seventy went up from the elders of Israel. They saw the God of Israel and under his feet a structure as if made of sapphire plates and shining like heaven itself in its purity. But he did not stretch out his hand to them Noble Israel, rather they were allowed to see God. And they ate and drank. " (Ex 24.9-11.)

This other (Elohistic) tradition seems to have the worship of a god by means of a cultic meal on a mountain, which is called the mountain of God, as its background.

In today's book Exodus, both traditions have now been interwoven. Once we read about the people standing down on the mountain while it erupts like a volcano, and it is also told how the 70 elders hold their meal on the mountain.

If we assume that the tradition from Sinai and the tradition from Gottesberg, where people came together for cult meals, were originally independent traditions and had nothing to do with each other, then it is very likely that this Gottesberg is not identical to the Sinai.

Maybe this is now Gottesberg but to look precisely in the mountain range that lies in the southern part of what is now known as the Sinai Peninsula. This mountain of God on the Sinai peninsula would then have drawn the actual Sinai tradition and thus the name "Sinai" to itself when the two traditions were merged.

This could explain why the tradition of the Revelation of Yahweh was later tied to today's Sinai Peninsula. And why the confusion with the various names of the place where Yahweh appeared to this day persists.

In order to make this confusion clear, I would just like to mention in passing that the book of Deuteronomy seems to know another tradition. There Yahweh appears neither on the "Sinai", nor on the "God's mountain", but on the mountain "Horeb". This mountain Horeb was later identified with Sinai, which is now simply called God's mountain Horeb or Sinai.

But that just shows how complex the tradition of the Mount of Yahweh theophany was.

d. Belief in Yahweh is not a purely Israelite matter

We cannot deal exhaustively with these complex traditions here. Ultimately, one can only make assumptions and, at best, develop hypotheses.

So here, for example, the question must remain completely open whether the groups who worshiped Yahweh at a Sinai volcano were the same groups as those who took part in the cultic feasts on the Mount of God.

Nor can we clarify here whether these groups of semi-nomads are to be counted among the direct ancestors of Israel or not, i.e. whether or not, regardless of a Moses group, worship of the God Yahweh was widespread among individual groups of Israel's ancestors.

In any case, it is certain that groups who did not belong to the ancestors of Israel also participated in the cult of Yahweh and knew him. The Bible still vaguely indicates that the Kenites (Judges 4:11) z. B. and the Midianites (Ex 3,1; 18,12) were Jehovah worshipers. ⋅6⋅

Jetro, Moses' father-in-law, for example, is said to have been a priest of Midian (Ex 3.1) and Ex 18 says:

"Jetro, Moses 'father-in-law, then brought a burnt offering and a sacrifice to God, and Aaron came with all the elders of Israel to have a meal with Moses' father-in-law before God." (Ex 18.12.)

The priest of Midian therefore offers a sacrifice to the God Yahweh.

The veneration of Yahweh does not seem to have originally been a purely Israelite matter. Perhaps the memory found in this passage mentioned that Moses took over the faith in Yahweh from the Midianites in the first place.

Perhaps it was precisely this Jetro, the father-in-law of Moses, who first came to believe in the Lord in the first place. This could also explain why the relationship between Moses and Jetro was so strongly reflected in the Pentateuch.

It is possible that the account of Moses' flight to the Midianites and the Yahweh theophany that settled there contains precisely the memory of the fact that Moses got to know the faith in Yahweh among the Midianites and then brought this faith closer to his fellow tribes in Egypt.

5. Exodus and desert migration

In any case, after his stay with the Midianites, Moses returned to Egypt and in the name of this Yahweh called on the ancestors of the Israelites who worked in labor to withdraw from Egyptian rule.

When the flight carried out in the name of Yahweh succeeded and the rescue from the Egyptians' chariots was found at the sea, the group of semi-nomads liberated from Egypt probably finally became Yahweh worshipers (Ex 14.31).

a. The rescue on the Red Sea

However, this excerpt from Egypt should not be imagined in Hollywood fashion.

We have already seen that the number of fleeing Israelites cannot be given as more than 600,000. This is a later, elaborate figure.

Also, the passage through the sea is not to be thought of as a great natural spectacle. You can only understand that if you understand what was originally meant by a miracle in the Old Testament. Israel had a completely different concept of miracles here than we do.

Israel did not believe that it discovered God's work in the repeal of natural laws. In the orderly course of the world one discovered God's accompanying work.

The text of Ex 14-15 therefore suggests something like a constellation miracle.

The oldest text describes that a body of water, perhaps a water-bearing wadi, was dried up by the east wind blowing from the desert.

"All night Yahweh made the sea [more precisely: the water] shrink from a strong east wind and dried the sea [the water]." (Ex 14.21.)

This is an easy to understand event. The air coming from the east, i.e. from the desert, was dry and hot.

However, dried out river beds were and are popular transport routes in Palestine. It is possible that the fleeing Hebrews chose such a path.

A change in the wind now brings about moist sea air, which rained down in the mountains. One can still observe today that dried up river beds are filled in no time by the masses of water falling down into the valley. In this case, there is actually a mortal danger for the people wandering in the wadi.

When Ex 14.27 notes:

"The waters flooded back to their old place at daybreak, while the Egyptians fled to meet them." (Ex 14.27.)

one can certainly think of such an incident.

This "normal" event was a miracle for Israel. It was the accompanying act of Yahweh that caused events to come together at that point in time.

This idea of ​​the constellation miracle is the prevailing concept of miracles in the Old Testament.

b. Moses and the Desert Migration Period

This is likely to be roughly the historically tangible core of the Moselle shape and the exodus. It is very likely that Moses was instrumental in imparting faith in Yahweh.

It is disputed what role Moses played historically in the desert wandering that followed in the Bible and in the Sinai tradition.

It may well be that it only found its way into the rest of the Pentateuch narratives in the course of the tradition process, when the originally independent Pentateuch traditions were connected with one another. Its role in the desert migration and in the Sinai tradition does not therefore necessarily have to be historical.

It could well be that the leadership role in the Sinai tradition and in the tradition pieces of the desert migration was simply ascribed to him in the course of development.

Then one would have to assume that the group that was involved in the exodus and, accordingly, also became the bearer of the exodus tradition, were not identical with the groups that participated in the Sinai cult and, above all, then also formed the Sinai tradition. We have already referred to this question above.

Since there are indications that the Exodus tradition and the Sinai tradition were originally separate traditions and that they were only linked to one another in a secondary manner, the supporters of this thesis suggest that different groups of what will become Israel bear the Sinai tradition on the one hand and the Exodus tradition were on the other side.

The bearers of the Sinai tradition would then of course also have been worshipers of Yahweh, regardless of the Moses group, through their participation in the Yahweh cult, which was cultivated on Sinai. Their tradition would then have been subsequently linked to that of the Moselle group.

However, this thesis is quite controversial. In the traditions of the Pentateuch, the figure of the Moses is so deeply engraved that it is difficult to remove it entirely from a historical point of view.

Perhaps the tensions can be resolved by assuming that the group who escaped from Egypt actually undertook something like a pilgrimage to the place of Yahweh worship after their rescue at the Red Sea. In this way, the God who had just been experienced as powerful was to be worshiped at his home.

A reference to this journey into the desert to worship the God Yahweh may have been preserved in the Bible. Moses asks Pharaoh to let the people go so that they can worship their God.

Such a pilgrimage to Yahweh would also have taken place under the direction of Moses. The reports of the Sinai revelation could then be a reminder of such a desert pilgrimage to the abode of Yahweh. Presumably, such a pilgrimage did not lead the Moselle group to Sinai in the mountainous region of Seïr but to "God's Mountain" on the Sinai peninsula. That this later attracted the Sinai tradition could well be explained by this. ⋅7⋅

6. "Egypt group" and people of Israel

For the further development of Israel's history it is now important that the Moselle group is not to be settled in a vacuum. Before she moved to Egypt because of a famine, she certainly had extensive contacts with other semi-nomad groups on the edge of the Palestinian cultural land, groups that would later become Israel. Such contacts are well documented.

The meeting of different groups of the later Israel occurred in all probability, for example at the oasis sanctuary of Kadesh, 80 km southwest of Beersheba.

Kadesh is attested several times in the Pentateuch lore as the whereabouts of Israelites in the time before they settled down in ⋅9⋅.

When the members of the Moselle group returned to their traditional hiking area after their exodus, they were no strangers there. Old contacts were resumed. The experiences of the Mose group became known to the other semi-nomad groups. We can therefore assume that the Exodus tradition spread rapidly among the semi-nomadic groups.

The Jahweglaube now seems to have carried over to these groups.

These semi-nomadic groups, who have now come to believe in Yahweh, could now have been exactly the later Rahel tribes.

When they settled in another wave of immigration in the land of Canaan, they brought faith in the God Yahweh to Palestine. There he then apparently transferred the worship of Yahweh to the other tribes that had already settled. I will indicate later why this was so easily possible.

These tribes now coming into the land did not represent the whole people of Israel, as the Bible describes. So one cannot say that quantitative Israel participated directly in the exodus experience. But one can say that with the groups named here, qualitative Israel settled in Palestine. Because the belief in Yahweh of this group and the experience of the Moses group now became decisive for the later union of the Israelites under the one God Yahweh and for the union of the later greatness Israel.

The God Yahweh was now - as previously "El" - identified with the "God of the fathers" and became the common God of Israel.

7. The importance of the move-out

The exodus and the salvation by the sea became of fundamental importance for the faith and the relationship to God in Israel. In this event the ancestors of Israel experienced the saving act of Yahweh in an overwhelming way.

  • In the dynamic of this action new aspects opened up for the belief in Yahweh. The fact that the ancestors of Israel experienced the victory of Yahweh over the powers of Egypt and his saving act in a historical act, the roots for the historical relevance of the belief in Yahweh lie. Yahweh becomes the god of history.
  • In the experience that Yahweh had the forces of nature - for example of the sea or the desert - and made them subservient, the foundation for the belief in the rule of Yahweh over the "natural forces" is laid, what for the later conflict of Israel with the Baal religion became important.
  • At the time of the departure, Yahweh took the side of the enslaved "Hebrews". That is why later commandments relating to the social sphere, such as behavior towards strangers and towards people of inferior rights, were justified with this saving act of Yahweh (e.g. Ex 22.9; Deut 5.15).

The exodus was seen as so characteristic of Yahweh's actions that in Israel Yahweh was identified in a firmly coined liturgical formula as the God

"... who brought Israel out of Egypt (= liberated, saved, redeemed)."

In being brought out of Egypt, Israel saw the origin of its being chosen (2 Sam 7:23) and the beginning of its history (2 Sam 7,6).


Cf. Martin Metzger, Outline of the History of Israel (Neukirchen 5th edition 1979) 30-36.

Quoted from: Martin Metzger, Grundriß der Geschichte Israels (Neukirchen 5th edition 1979) 31.

TGI 2, No. 16, quoted from: Martin Metzger, Grundriß der Geschichte Israels (Neukirchen 5th edition 1979) 31.

TGI 2, No. 12, quoted from: Martin Metzger, Grundriß der Geschichte Israels (Neukirchen 5th edition 1979) 32.

See: TGI 2, No. 1, see: Martin Metzger, Grundriß der Geschichte Israels (Neukirchen 5th edition 1979) 34.

In this context it is important that in Egyptian inscriptions from the time of Amenhotep III. (14th century BC) and Ramses 'II. (13th century BC) the consonants of the divine name Yahweh (YHW') appear in the phrase "Land of the Shasu Yahweh". Shasu is the Egyptian name for nomadic groups in the area south of Palestine. In the same texts these groups are also referred to as "Shasu of Seir" and "Shasu of Edom". This parallel setting of Shasu Yahweh, Shasu of Seir and Shasu of Edom in Egyptian texts corresponds to the fact that in the Old Testament Yahweh's coming from Sinai is synonymous with a coming from Seir (Dtn 33.2) and that Seir, as in the Egyptian ones mentioned Texts, again as a parallel to "Edom's realm" appears (Ri 5,4). These parallels in Egyptian and Old Testament texts show that non-Israelite nomads were also familiar with the Yahweh name, and that the consonants of the Yahweh name could almost be used to identify such a group.It is noticeable that in Egyptian texts the hiking area of ​​these Shasu groups, characterized by the name of Yahweh, is precisely where Yahweh's residence is located according to Ri 5,4 and Dtn 33,2 and where the Sinai is to be located, namely in the mountains Seïr, the territory of the Edomites. These Egyptian parallels speak for a localization of Sinai in the area east of the Arabah between the Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea.
(Martin Metzger, Outline of the History of Israel (Neukirchen 5th edition 1979) 28-29.)

Since there is some evidence that salvation by the sea was visualized in a cult act celebrated at Gilgal (Jos 4.19-24), but that Gilgal belongs to the area of ​​the Rahel tribes later settled in central Palestine, it is likely that the Rahel tribes were carriers of the Excerpt tradition and that ancestors of these tribes belonged to the groups of the Exodus.
See: Martin Metzger, Outline of the History of Israel (Neukirchen 5th edition 1979) 35.

The name means "sanctuary".
(Compare: Martin Metzger, Outline of the History of Israel (Neukirchen 5th edition 1979) 35.)

Num 20.1. 14-16-22; 27.14; 22.36-37. Kadesh is also the starting point for the land grabbing of groups that have settled in southern Palestine. (Compare: Num 13.26; 32.8.)