Is Cleveland a polluted city

Cleveland, a big city in the north of the United States, in English class, grade 8 junior high school

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2. Cleveland - Through the Ages and Economics
2.1 From land speculation to the commercial center
2.1.1 The Western Reserve
2.1.2 From the settlement to the trading town
2.2 Midwestern manufacturing and processing center
2.2.1 The railroad
2.2.2 The iron and steel industry
2.2.3 The American Civil War
2.2.4 The business with the "black gold"
2.2.5 Negative consequences of industrialization
2.2.6 The end of Cleveland's first century
2.2.7 Cleveland in the early 20th century
2.2.7.1 America's first Motor City
2.2.7.2 The First World War
2.2.8 The black decade and another upswing
2.2.9 The decline of the industrial colossus
2.3 Reconfigured processing industry and service sector
2.4 Summary
2.5 Selection and presentation of the focal points for regional studies lessons
2.5.1 Choice of focus
2.5.2 Presentation
2.5.2.1 Introductory phase
2.5.2.2 Development phase
2.5.2.3 Saving of results

3. The coexistence of ethnic groups
3.1 Immigrants in Cleveland
3.1.1 Chronological presentation of immigration
3.1.2 Immigrant life in Cleveland
3.2 Germans in Cleveland
3.3 The black minority
3.4 Summary
3.5 Selection and presentation of the focal points for regional studies lessons
3.5.1 Choice of focus
3.5.2 Presentation
3.5.2.1 Introductory phase
3.5.2.2 Development phase

4. Sights and special features
4.1 Sights
4.1.1 Museums
4.1.2 Leisure facilities
4.1.3 Monuments
4.1.4 Distinctive city districts
4.2 Special features
4.2.1 Sport
4.2.2 Music and theater
4.2.3 Medical care
4.3 Cleveland's world premieres
4.4 Cleveland's famous sons and daughters
4.5 Summary
4.6 Selection and presentation of the focal points for regional studies
4.6.1 Choice of focus
4.6.2 Presentation
4.6.2.1 Introductory phase
4.6.2.2 Development phase
4.6.2.3 Saving of results

5. Closing words

6. Appendix

bibliography

List of figures

Explanation

1 Introduction

This scientific term paper with the topic "Cleveland, a big city in the north of the USA, in English lessons, grade 8 Realschule" concentrates on the geographical description of the city of Cleveland and its processing in English lessons. In addition, it should eliminate ignorance and prejudice in the reader by conveying specific information and arouse tourist interest. Because Cleveland is - as I can say from my own experience - worth a visit.

I have divided this elaboration into three main parts:

The first part, “Cleveland - Through the Ages and the Economy” describes the historical development of the city from its founding in 1796 to the present, driven by economic interests. It explains how Cleveland grew from a 'tool' of land speculation via a trading town to the manufacturing and processing center of the Midwest. After the heyday of the industrial city, its decline followed in the second half of the 20th century and an exemplary rebirth, which is still not over at the present time.

The second part describes the coexistence of the various ethnic groups in the city. Cleveland has always been an attractive destination for immigrants from around the world and blacks from the southern states of the country because of its industry and commerce. This fact made it a multi-cultural metropolis early on. Above all, the influences of German immigrants, who consistently represented the numerically strongest immigrant group, shaped the cityscape.

The third and final focus area deals with the “sights and special features” of Cleveland. This part addresses the most interesting museums, leisure facilities, monuments and neighborhoods. Here the reader should learn about the tourist attraction of Cleveland. It also explains what the city has to offer in terms of sports, music and theater, medical care and inventions and world premieres.

The most important and most interesting information for the students from the three subject-specific parts are then prepared for the regional studies class on the basis of didactic considerations. One lesson is offered for each of the three parts based on the information provided.

These school hours can be used in English classes at the start of the 8th grade in lieu of New York City treatment.

2. Cleveland - Through the Ages and Economics

The first part of this research paper deals with the economy and the history of the city of Cleveland. Economy, or trade and industry, are very closely linked to the origins and, above all, the historical development of this city. For this reason, this first part deals with both aspects, economy and history, at the same time. Parallel to the chronological development, an economic restructuring of Cleveland emerged during my research into the subject.

Edward W. Hill divided the economic history of Cleveland into three phases in his contribution to "Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader":

1. From land speculation to the commercial center
2. Midwestern manufacturing and processing center
3. Reconfigured processing industry and service sector

Based on this division into three phases, I will now explain the history and economic development of Cleveland.

2.1 From land speculation to the commercial center

2.1.1 The Western Reserve

There is hardly a better example of speculative land development than civilization and development Western Reserve of Connecticut. The most significant result of this land speculation is the establishment and development of the city of Cleveland.

In 1662, the reigning English King Charles II laid down the boundaries of his young British crown colony, Connecticut. The area of ​​this state or colony should be between the 41st and 42nd parallel north and "from sea-to-sea"[1] - from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

Before Connecticut became interested in its western territories, the states of New York and Pennsylvania were established on Connecticut territory by royal decree by the middle of the 18th century. When the first land speculative firms came into being in 1771 and bought large areas of Connecticut in order to sell them on for profit in small parcels, disputes arose between Connecticut and the newer states, such as Pennsylvania. Through the American War of Independence, the disputes were transferred from the British judiciary to the new American Congress. After nearly a decade, the State of Connecticut turned over all of its western real estate, except for, to the American federal government Western Reserve. The Western Reserve of Connecticut became, so to speak, the consolation prize of the federal decree of September 14, 1786. The area covered 1,349,148 hectares and was bordered at a width of 120 miles from the western border of Pennsylvania, the shores of Lake Erie and the 41st parallel north. Today this area is called Northeastern Ohio and in addition to the im Cuyahoga County Cleveland still includes the cities of Akron, Youngstown, New London and Willard.

In September 1795, the State of Connecticut sold the majority of the Western Reserve to the newly founded Connecticut Land Company for $ 1.2 million (on credit). The capital raised was invested in building a public school system for Connecticut. The Connecticut Land Company now set about developing and parceling the acquired territory in order to then sell it for profit.

That is why the company commissioned one of its directors, General Moses Cleaveland, who was also sales manager, to lead the first expedition to survey and survey the as yet unknown area.

Moses Cleaveland (January 29, 1754 - November 16, 1806) fought as an officer in the American War of Independence. Then he studied law at the Yale University and then went into politics. After he had made his contribution to the ratification of the Federal Constitution in 1788, he continued to work as a politically active lawyer and in 1796 became General of the 5th Brigade of the Connecticut State Militia appointed.

He then became a co-founder and investor of Connecticut Land Company.

Cleaveland's assignment was to assess the purchased area and to divide it into administrative districts, to regulate Indian claims, and to establish a "capitol town"[2] to found. In short, his mission was: "to prepare the land as quickly as possible for resale"[3].

On his way to Western Reserve Moses Cleaveland met representatives of the Mohwak and Seneca Indians, whom he persuaded to pay for a one-off payment of "500 pounds New York currency, two beef cattle, and 100 gallons of whiskey"[4]to withdraw to the area west of the Cuyahoga River. In addition, individual Iroquois and Ottawa tribes had to be aware of the validity of the Greenville Treaty of 1795, which established the western border of the United States of America at the confluence of the Cuyahogas into Lake Erie, convince.

On July 22, 1796, Cleaveland reached the mouth of the Cuyahgoga River with his expedition and landed his boat at the foot of the present day St Clair Avenue. Moses Cleaveland chose this location as the location of the “capitol town”, where the river, lake, flat bank, dense forests and rugged cliffs offered protection and shipping access at the same time.

He justified the choice of location with the fact that the city "must command the greatest COMMUNICATION either by land or water of any river on the purchase or in any ceded lands from the head of the Mohwak to the western extend or I am no prophet"[5]. It must be added here that Cleaveland is using the term communication The communication process meant, which was important in making the developed land attractive to potential buyers from other regions of the nation - especially Connecticut. Of course, he also saw the promising prospects of the navigable river, which would add to the commercial rise of the new settlement.

Next, the expedition members quickly created a rough city map based on the typical building scheme of the cities in New England, their home. A square one Public Square with a size of 4 hectares surrounded by individual parcels, each of which comprised almost one hectare and was separated from one another by wide roads, were staked out and released for sale shortly afterwards. General Cleaveland was persuaded by his subordinates to name the new 'city' after him instead of the planned name Cuyahoga. The name of this river comes from the Indian language and means something like 'curved river'.

A few weeks later, Moses Cleaveland left the newly founded city and returned to Connecticut. There he devoted himself again to politics, the military and his legal practice, and never returned to the Western Reserve back.

2.1.2 From settlement to trading town

The city of Cleaveland had a difficult 'childhood' until the completion of the Erie Canal and the Ohio Canal in 1827.

When Cleaveland's expedition returned to Connecticut in October 1796, only four participants remained in the newly formed settlement. After a heavy winter, these settlers eventually moved further west. But in the same month (May 1797) the families of Major Lorenzo Carter and Ezekiel Hawley reached the settlement in order to settle there permanently. From his log cabin on the eastern bank of the Cuyahoga, Carter began trading with the Indians across the river.

Meanwhile she advertised Connecticut Land Company able to emigrate to the Western Reserve and to Cleaveland. The settlers were promised free land if they moved there for at least a year and offered useful services (especially handicrafts) for the other settlers.

At the turn of the century, the first production and processing plant was established in Cleaveland: an alcohol distillery. The product was used as a luxury food, medicine, commodity and to calm the Indians. On July 4, 1801, there was the first ball in Cleaveland on the occasion of the independence anniversary. 32 men and women danced and celebrated in Carter's log cabin, which was also used as a school house. A year later, Carter built a tavern that became Cleaveland's first hotel.

In 1803 the area became the Western Reserve incorporated into the newly formed 17th state, Ohio. Due to the growing alliance between the British and the Indians, the Indians have been "displaced" from the western bank of the Cuyahoga by annual payments as a precaution.

1808 Carter opened the transport and trade on Lake Erie when he bought the 30-ton schooner Zephyr built. From then on, this schooner commuted between the eastern end of Lake Erie and Cleaveland. As a result, sales increased so much that shortly afterwards the first warehouse was built at the mouth of the Cuyahogas.

When a traveler named John Melish came to Cleaveland in 1811, he found “sixteen houses, several taverns, and stores, an economy limited to a little salt ... a little flour, pork, and whiskey, and a putrid smelling, sandbar -obstructed river ”[6] in front. Other reports also indicate that the Cuyahoga River for the first few decades of Cleaveland's existence drove away settlers rather than attracting them. It was difficult to navigate due to sandbanks and driftwood, and it was also surrounded by swampy terrain, which spread malaria and fever through attracted mosquitoes. Another representation of a traveler describes the settlement as a "wilderness of scrub oak with only thirty or forty acres cleared. Most of the town lots were fenced with rails. Three warehouses lined the river, but little commercial business was done because there was no harbor. Sandbars often blocked access to the river and both freight and passengers had to be transported to the beach by small boat. Cargo was rolled over the sand to the warehouses a quarter of a mile away. "[7]

At the time of the outbreak of war between the United States and Great Britain in June 1812, the village of Cleaveland had just about 100 inhabitants. Suddenly it became a strategically important point on the border with the western and northwestern theater of the conflict. From Cleaveland, British garrisons in southern Canada (now Ontario) were to be fought and the British incitement of Indian tribes to raids on American border settlements ended. Now Cleaveland served as a supply base and troop assembly point, and was made up of a fortress called Fort Huntington, and a hospital expanded. Among other things, the British blockade of Detroit Fortress was broken by sea (until it fell), with food, ammunition and encouragement given to the besieged soldiers. Furthermore, in 1813 the American flotilla admiral Oliver Hazard Perry made a stop with his fleet in Cleaveland before he met the British in the decisive naval battle off the island Put-in-Bay posed. When he returned victorious from this turning point in the war, he greeted the residents with the famous words: "We have met the enemy and they are ours."[8]

After the war of 1812, trade in Cleaveland grew little. Most of the goods were transported by water, even if some traders were still reluctant to invest in sea freight due to the unpredictability of wind and weather. This changed when in 1818 the first steamship of the Great Lakes, the Walk-In-The-Water, berthed in Cleaveland. Shortly afterwards, on the banks of the Cuyahoga, the city of Cleaveland's first steamship, the Enterprise, built. The Enterprise from now on regularly transported both freight and passengers on the Buffalo, Cleaveland and Detroit route. By 1820 the population had reached 606 inhabitants. At the same time, the Cleavelanders began fighting to build a canal that would connect Lake Erie with the Ohio River. In February 1825, the Ohio government finally approved the construction of the Ohio Canal, which should herald the economic prosperity of the city on Lake Erie. The construction of the waterway, which was to connect Cleaveland with Portsmouth on the banks of the Ohio, took a total of seven years. The most important part - the canal between Cleaveland and Akron - was dug within two years and finally measured one and a half meters deep, 13 meters wide and over 60 kilometers long. For this purpose, numerous immigrants from Germany and Ireland came to Cleaveland and worked “from sunup to sundown for 30c a day plus a jigger of whiskey every five hours to ward off malaria and cholera.”[9] The entire 308 mile waterway from Cleaveland to Portsmouth was completed in 1832.

Immediately after the Ohio Canal opened in July 1827, traders and farmers began using the new route of transport. Grain and other agricultural products now came to Cleaveland from central Ohio. This made the city the transfer center of the Great Lakes for wheat, flour, whiskey, butter, cheese and wool. The Flats - the banks of the Cuyahoga in the city center - began to flourish and became the heart of Cleaveland's economy. Boatloads of clay and sandstone gave architects a better choice of building materials, which had a positive impact on the construction of new and better buildings. Then in 1840 the canals were also rich in coal Mahoning Valley reached on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountains, Cleaveland also grew to become the most important coal center on the Great Lakes. On the one hand because of this advantage and on the other hand because of the heavy ship traffic, a leading shipbuilding and repair industry has now emerged.

In return, processed goods, glass, clothing, salt, tools, household goods and building materials were transported to rural areas in the south of Ohio that were once difficult to reach, which in turn boosted production in Cleaveland. The new waterways not only transported more goods and materials, but above all reduced freight costs at a fraction of the previous prices. While road transport had previously cost at least $ 15 per ton and mile, traders and farmers only paid $ 1 using the canals. As a result, not only Cleaveland, but all areas bordering the water transport network - both agriculture and young industry - experienced a considerable economic drive, which had an impact in all areas of life.

An additional boost to the urban economy came shortly after the canal opened when the federal government funded the expansion of the port of Cleaveland. This new port and canal improved the course of the Cuyahoga River and reduced the health risk from mosquito-related diseases. Cleaveland's economy was given a further boost by the completion of the Erie Canal, which connected the cities of Buffalo and Albany. Cleaveland now had a direct water connection to New York City (and thus to the Atlantic Ocean) via Lake Erie, the Erie Canal and the Hudson River. Since then, it has also been possible to travel by ship from Cleaveland to New Orleans (and the Gulf of Mexico) via the new Ohio Canal, the Ohio and the Mississippi. This made Cleaveland a water hub and one of the fastest growing regions in the country.

The annual handling of goods and materials in Cleaveland was 250 tons in 1827. Three years later it was already 1,500 tons, and in 1838 the peak was reached with 9,500 tons. Shipping traffic on Lake Erie also increased significantly: the number of ships calling at the port of Cleaveland rose from 1000 ships in 1838 to 1600 in 1844. Since 1830, the port of Cleaveland has also had a lighthouse. As early as 1833, a newspaper report described the activity on the lake as follows: "The Lake is white with canvass."[10]

The trade and transport boom also brought about changes in the civil area of ​​the city. Within 20 years the population of Cleaveland increased tenfold and stood at 6,000 in 1840. In addition, the police-like emerged in the thirties City Watch initially with 48 volunteers and a first official fire brigade consisting of 45 volunteers.

The change of the city name from Cleaveland to Cleveland also dates from this period. The new spelling became official in 1832 as the leading newspaper of the time, the Cleaveland Herald, took the first "a" from her name in the imprint. The most interesting theory for this is that the letter was trodden on by a cow.

Even the nationwide Depression of 1838 could hardly slow down the upswing in Cleveland. Since ships were used on the lakes and boats were used on the canals, almost all of the cargo that came to the mouth of the Cuyahoga had to be accommodated, processed, unloaded or reloaded. As a result, nine more warehouses were built even in the crisis year of 1838.

In order to increase the value of the goods and to reduce the weight of the goods, the traders made sure that their arriving goods, which had to be unloaded and temporarily stored anyway, were processed on the spot. As a consequence, mills, alcohol distilleries, foundries, machine factories, soap and candle factories, millstone shops and pottery shops emerged.

The first heavy industry in the region that Cuyahoga Steam Furnace Company, was founded in 1830 and produced steam boilers for the shipping industry and, ten years later, locomotive engines. Soon after, other steelworks and other shipyards were built. Six new banks were also established between 1845 and 50.

When Cleveland's transportation and trade hub flourished in the 1830s and 40s, the only dark cloud that clouded the Clevelanders' skies was their neighbor Ohio City. The village of Ohio City was founded on the east bank of the Cuyahoga 20 years after Cleveland, and has become a stubborn rival to Cleveland in the decades that have followed. The climax of this rivalry came in 1836 when the two neighbors met in the Bridge War by force of arms around them Columbus Street Bridge argued. The rivalry continued until Ohio City was finally annexed by Cleveland in 1854.

2.2 Midwestern manufacturing and processing center

The entire shipping traffic on Lake Erie and the canals had one not insignificant catch: the weather. A city chronicle describes this problem as follows: “Our year was but eight months long; Lake and Canal were ice-bound during the entire winter, and with the first hard frost, the business of the city went into a state of hybernation. "[11]

2.2.1 The railroad

The rail boom from 1850 onwards opened the second phase of Cleveland's commercial development. With the connection to the national rail network in the following two decades, Cleveland underpinned its claim to a place among the leading economic centers in the United States.

Since 1837 there was a new railway line, the so-called Cleveland, Columbus & Cincinnati Railroad (or simply CC&C), first considered, then specifically planned and prepared. Cleveland's ice rink era officially began with the coupling of the CC&C locomotive to a row of wagons on November 3, 1849. The symbolic starting whistle for the locomotive was given in Cleveland Herald commented as follows: "The whistle of the locomotive will be as familiar to the ears of the Clevelander as the sound of church bells."[12] This prophecy would prove correct. On February 21, 1851, the Columbus to Cincinnati railroad was completed, and the first train reached Cleveland's first lakefront station and the, to great applause West 9th Street. The next line was inaugurated just one day later - for the Cleveland & Pittsburgh route. Investors saw the railroad as a way to further build on the economic benefits of the canal trade. Because Cleveland had large amounts of easy-to-handle cargo over long distances, it was attractive for rail lines to build there. The resulting competition among the lines left freight prices lower than in other, smaller cities. The consequence of this was that two years later Cleveland was connected to Chicago and New York City in addition to Pittsburgh, Columbus and Cincinnati. Shortly before the end of the first wave of railway construction in 1857, the Cleveland & Mahoning Valley Railroad (C&MV), with the intermediate stations Warren and Youngstown. The C&MV not only brought another railway line to Cleveland, but also gave local heavy industry and export trade across the Great Lakes faster and cheaper access to the rich coal-mining areas in the Mahoning Valley.

The increased use of the railroad in Cleveland and the surrounding area caused a sharp decline in canal traffic. For example, pork shipments fell from 7,500 tons in 1854 to 100 tons six years later. Instead, 25,000 tons of pork and ham came through Cleveland on rails in 1856. Similar losses in wheat and other grains signaled a turn to the railroad, which Cleveland now kept busy all year round.

2.2.2 The iron and steel industry

From 1850, huge iron ore deposits were discovered on the northern Michigan Peninsula, south of Lake Superior. In addition, the Soo Canal at Sault Ste was completed. Marie between the Upper Lake and the Huron Lake. This new canal opened a waterway to the Lower Lakes, and thus to Cleveland. These two events made Cleveland the main port of the Great Lakes and irreversibly changed the city's economy. Cleveland's location as the meeting point of iron ore (from the two Upper Lakes) and coal (from Pennsylvania and Ohio) led the city into the industrial age.

Soon a fleet of steamers was in operation, bringing 1000 tons of iron ore per ship to Cleveland. In 1857 the first rolling mill was built, the Cleveland Rolling Mill Company (later American Steel and Wire). The now growing steel industry initially found its main customer in the railroad and in the beginning of steel bridge construction.

The flourishing economy brought about some significant changes for the city itself in the 1950s: the population rose from 18,000 (1850) to 44,000 in 1860. Street lighting with gas lamps, tarred roads, horse-drawn trams and elevated sidewalks were created. The Cleveland Board of Education was founded and built the first urban one in 1856 high school. A dozen more fire stations were built, and a health department and professional police force were established. All such services suggest that prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War, Cleveland was a fully developed city that followed national trends and was determined to capitalize on expanding industrialization.

2.2.3 The American Civil War

When the Civil War broke out in April 1861, Cleveland sided with the Union not only because of geographical conditions, but also because of the very popular politician Abraham Lincoln. For example, when Lincoln stopped in Cleveland en route to assuming office as the new president, he was greeted enthusiastically by countless residents.

This time Cleveland was far enough from the front line. The railway, however, was closely connected to the rest of the north and became an important production center for war material. Since the Union laid countless miles of railroad tracks to supply its units and, of course, needed artillery pieces, the steel industry boomed.

“At the start of the war ..., there were no iron foundries in the city; by 1864 there were 21, "[13] which produced most of the gun and railroad steel required by the Union. As a result, the employment rate in Cleveland's steel industry rose from 500 at the beginning of the decade to 3,000 in 1866. During 1864 and '65, over half of the iron ore mined in Michigan came to Cleveland, much of which went to the thriving shipbuilding industry raft. Therefore, in 1865, 44 percent of all ships on the Great Lakes came from Cleveland shipyards.

Due to the strong demand for chloroform and sulfuric acid, Cleveland's chemical industry was born, which continued to develop and diversify during the war. In addition to steel and chemicals, Cleveland's industry supplied the Union with uniforms, gunpowder, knitwear and meat.

Cleveland not only sent supplies and goods to the war, but also about ten thousand volunteers. Besides, that came about U.S. General Hospital and seven military camps in the city.

2.2.4 The business with the "black gold"

In 1859, the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania saw the first crude oil. Numerous entrepreneurs from northeast Ohio followed the call of black gold to Pennsylvania and soon afterwards the crude oil obtained was also flowing to Cleveland. John D. Rockefeller, who until then had accumulated wealth mainly as an accountant and commission agent, got into oil production and founded the in 1863 with his partner Maurice B. Clark and the English Andrews, Clark & ​​Company. This company built Cleveland's first oil refinery, the Excelsior Works, at the end of the new line Atlantic and Great Western Railroad in the Flats. After business disagreements, Rockefeller and Andrews paid off their partners and founded the company with two other businessmen in 1870 Standard Oil. Numerous other oil refineries followed, but almost all of them over the course of the next two decades Standard Oil were bought up.

Rockefeller used the railroad links (and later pipelines) built before him to transport crude oil from Pennsylvania and western Ohio to its processing facilities in Cleveland. The processed products, such as kerosene and gasoline, were then transported in the same manner to the port of New York City, from where they were shipped around the world. For a while, Cleveland was the largest oil refining center in the world. For the first few decades, Cleveland residents took pride in the smell of oil and the oil cars that marked the cityscape. With the abundance of inexpensive steel, gasoline, and skilled labor, many different engineering factories have sprung up in Central Cleveland. In addition, there was the paint industry, which was stimulated by the further processing of products from the oil and chemical industries, with the market leader Sherwin-Williams Company.

2.2.5 Negative consequences of industrialization

Already in 1870 they showed Flats clear signs of pollution.

Twenty-five sewers and an increasing number of factories and refineries directed their sewage directly into the river. The result was that the Cuyahoga and thus also Lake Erie were heavily polluted by industrial waste and sewage and there was even a "200-foot gap had to be cut in the west breakwall to allow the river waste to pass through into the lake."[14] A European newcomer described the Cuyahoga as follows: “The water was yellowish, thick, full of clay, stinking of oil and sewage. The water heaped rotting wood on both banks of the river; everything was dirty and neglected. "[15] Many other observers glorified or glossed over the effects of industrialization in the name of technical and economic progress. And during the Cleveland Leader Another local newspaper described one of the worst spots in the Flats with its “straggling half-whitewashed houses, filthy rags, dirty-faced, half-naked, white-headed children, poorly clad women, the hundreds of cats and dogs, and the millions of flies. "[16] Most of the workers in the processing industry, which now employed 30 percent of Cleveland's business-minded people, lived in poor conditions near the Flats. The foghorn at the harbor could be heard throughout the city. Then there was the steaming and whistling of the railway trains, and the factory sirens with which the factories called their workers at five o'clock in the morning. The result were the first sporadic restrictions on urban industry, such as the ban on factory sirens or the installation of a reflector on the fog horn.

2.2.6 The end of Cleveland's first century

Despite the poor environmental conditions in the Cleveland region, the influx of people even increased. By the 1960s, the population had more than doubled to 92,000 in 1870. Cleveland was one of the nation's most important iron and steel suppliers, producing around 400 tons a day with 14 rolling mills. In addition, the city was the oil-processing capital of America with its new pipeline to the Pennsylvanian crude oil fields and the consequent processing of two million barrels a day. Other local industries produced lumber, railway parts, wire, barrels, clothing, cigars, engines and boilers, paper and ships.

Cleveland had America's second largest shipbuilding industry after Philadelphia in the early 1990s. In 1880 Cleveland had 160,000 people, making it the twelfth largest city in the United States.

In newly registered patents, it even ranked fourth, which suggests that it is extremely fertile ground for innovations.Probably the most significant inventions were electric street lights, motors, durable batteries, and Alexander Brown's mechanical loading crane, which reduced a lot of time and labor when loading and unloading ships.

Cleveland's workforce across the processing industry had grown to 53,000 by 1890. And as in other American cities at the time, the factory workers worked long hours a day for low wages and sometimes under very dangerous conditions. Short-term depression often manifested itself in drastic wage cuts, which, organized by the unions, provoked strikes.

Strikes, in turn, often led factory owners to import foreign strikers. There was a constant labor dispute between the trade unions (a hundred in number in 1900) and the factory and factory owners. The massive influx of immigrants was now so advanced that three quarters of Cleveland's population were of foreign origin (mostly from Europe).

The richest and most prominent upper class in Cleveland had settled in the eastern part of the country during the last third of the century Euclid Avenue settled down. This part was due to the numerous villas and their inhabitants Millionaires ’Row called and was "one of the most beautiful streets in the world."[17]

The flourishing economy also triggered a building boom, which among other things resulted in the first high-rise buildings in the city. Furthermore, numerous separate ones were created

Administrative departments such as the police, fire brigade, tax office, public utilities, welfare and the penal system. Although the water supply was still good, water pollution still did not decrease. In the 1990s, 200 million liters of unfiltered wastewater were discharged into Lake Erie.

When Cleveland celebrated its 100th birthday in 1896, the city was one of the largest industrial and commercial centers in America. However, the cityscape was desolate and inhospitable. The Women's Department of the city’s centennial commission described the result of the past hundred years in the time capsule sealed afterwards as follows: “We bequeath to you a city of a century, prosperous and beautiful, and yet far from our ideal. ... Many of the people are poor, and some are vainly seeking work at living wages. ... Some of our children are robbed of their childhood. Vice parades our streets and disease lurks in many places that men and women call their homes. "[18]

2.2.7 Cleveland in the early 20th century

At the beginning of the 20th century, Cleveland was one of the world's pre-eminent processing centers. Both the steel and oil industries continued to flourish. In addition, the gasoline-producing sector and the electrical industry grew. Ships from Cleveland shipyards filled the Great Lakes and additional railroad lines reached the city. 32 new banks were created in the first decade, reflecting the revenue of Cleveland's industry as a whole.

2.2.7.1 America's first Motor City

Cleveland played a major role in the rapid and revolutionary rise of the automotive industry in the first few decades (from 1890). Mark Gottlieb wrote in his book "Cleveland - Shaping A Third Century" that "long before Detroit acquired the title, Cleveland was America’s first‘ Motor City. ’"[19]

In 1898 the Winton Motor Carriage Company the first manufacturer and supplier of a standardized, gasoline-powered automobile in Cleveland. As early as 1909, the U.S. manufacturing census automobile manufacturing as the third largest industry in the city of Cleveland. There were now 32 factories with over 7,000 employees producing automobiles worth $ 21 million annually. At the same time, a market-leading rubber and tire production facility was established in neighboring Akron. The proximity of this rubber city also had a positive impact on Cleveland's automotive industry. In the following years, however, Cleveland lost its leadership position to Detroit. There, manufacturers and investors showed greater willingness to take risks and, with Henry Ford, for example, built huge mass production factories. This brought an upswing in the production of individual parts in Cleveland. The result was that in 1920, 70 percent of the steel produced in Cleveland was used for local auto parts production.

2.2.7.2 The First World War

When World War I broke out in 1914, 560,665 people lived and worked in the city, making Cleveland the sixth largest city in the United States. As soon as the war began, the industry began producing uniforms, automobiles and trucks, weapons, and chemicals for gunpowder, first for the Allies, then for America itself. From the time the USA entered the war in 1917 until the end of the war, a year and a half later, 41,000 Clevelanders joined the American armed forces, of which over 1,000 did not return. The war not only brought renewed economic growth, but also changed the demographic and ethnic face of the city.

I will go into more detail on this aspect in the second part of my paper.

2.2.8 The black decade and another upswing

Figure not included in this excerpt

The stock market crash at the end of October 1929 marked the beginning of the Great Depression, of which probably "Cleveland has never really recovered"[20], according to KEATING, KRUMHOLZ and PERRY. The number of unemployed rose from 41,000 to 100,000 within a short period of time. The city had to contend with rapidly falling tax revenues and an escalating demand for food, shelter and clothing. Through large construction projects financed by the federal government, such as the first public housing project, the new one Main Avenue Bridge and the Cleveland Municipal Stadium, countless Clevelanders could continue to be employed. Nevertheless, only a sixth of the loss of wages and salaries caused by numerous factory closings could be compensated for by such measures.

The outbreak of World War II and the resulting demand for war material triggered a strong, nationwide industrial boom. Cleveland's depressed factories resumed production, supplying planes, tanks, bombs, artillery, binoculars and telescopes to the U.S. Armed forces and their allies. With 160,000 Clevelanders moving in and industry booming again, thousands of women were employed. During the war, Cleveland was named "the best location in the nation"[21] titled because of the diversified industrial base, the large supply of trained workers, cheap electricity and water and the geographical position in terms of transport, proximity to raw material sources and proximity to consumer markets. In World War II, Cleveland's people fully supported their American fatherland. Not just the two and a half billion dollar war bonds that the urban population holds Uncle Sam supported, but also several national awards to companies for extraordinary production, proved the patriotism of the Clevelanders. The biggest problem on the Cleveland home front was the housing shortage, as there were 878,336 residents in 1940 and hardly any new homes were built. The population continued to rise due to the flourishing war material production and the soldiers returning home after the war. In order to cope with the increasing population, one-family apartments were divided into several residential units. This began with the pattern of overuse and overcrowding, which in the future led to severe neglect of apartments. Another problem that originated in the early forties is the withdrawal of the population to the suburbs. A report by the Chamber of Commerce describes this problem as early as 1941: “It is evident that most people who live in Cleveland are anxious to move to the suburbs. ... Experience has shown that if their economic status permits, the majority of Clevelanders prefers to live outside of the central area. "[22]

2.2.9 The decline of the industrial colossus

Cleveland had a population of 914,808 in 1950. From that point on, things only went downhill for the city. Almost 39,000 people left the city during the 1950s. Due to the progressive neglect of the cityscape and the increasing crime, more and more residents moved to the suburbs. This brought severe losses in income and wealth taxes. Measures paid for by the federal government brought hardly any improvements. The largest urban renewal program to date largely failed, and the construction of a motorway network even accelerated industrial decline as more and more loads were moved onto the streets.

In addition, there was the growing competition with foreign companies in the steel, automotive and mechanical engineering sectors, which cost 130,000 jobs to urban industry until the late 1970s. Job losses are attributed to the following problems: high wages - Cleveland's employed workforce enjoyed the highest standard of living of any industrial population through its trade unions of! 940-70 - obsolete industrial plants, local competition, poor product quality, collapse of traditional buyers, and bad Management.

[...]



[1] GRABOWSKI, John, J.-VAN TASSEL, David, D. (eds), The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University, 1987, p. 1040

[2] HUEY, Norma, History of the Flats - Broadcast Friday Nights 1986-87, Cleveland: River Bends Parks Corp., 1988, 4

[3] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.14

[4] HUEY, Norma, History of the Flats - Broadcast Friday Nights 1986-87, Cleveland: River Bends Parks Corp., 1988, 4

[5] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.14

[6] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.31

[7] HUEY, Norma, History of the Flats - Broadcast Friday Nights 1986-87, Cleveland: River Bends Parks Corp., 1988, 10

[8] http://ech.cwru.edu/Scripts/Article.asp?ID=WO1

[9] HUEY, Norma, History of the Flats - Broadcast Friday Nights 1986-87, Cleveland: River Bends Parks Corp., 1988, p.18

[10] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.33

[11] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.35

[12] http://ech.cwru.edu/Scripts/Article.asp?ID=R1

[13] GOTTLIEB, Mark, Cleveland - Shaping a Third Century, Montgomery: Community Communication, 1997, p.52

[14] HUEY, Norma, History of the Flats - Broadcast Friday Nights 1986-87, Cleveland: River Bends Parks Corp., 1988, 78

[15] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.37

[16] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.37

[17] GOTTLIEB, Mark, Cleveland - Shaping a Third Century, Montgomery: Community Communication, 1997, p.54

[18] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.40

[19] GOTTLIEB, Mark, Cleveland - Shaping a Third Century, Montgomery: Community Communication, 1997, p.54

[20] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.42

[21] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.43

[22] KEATING, Dennis, W. - KRUMHOLZ, Norman - PERRY, David, C. (eds), Cleveland - A Metropolitan Reader, Kent & London: Kent State University, 1995, p.43

End of excerpt from 91 pages