What is Thomas Jefferson's educational background

Long night about Johann Joachim Winckelmann"I'm screaming to be the greatest Greek in Rome"

As a writer, Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717 - 1768) brought ancient Greek art closer to the modern public. We often look at the art (not only) of the ancient world, without realizing it, through the prism of his writings.

Apollo and the Venus of Belvedere and the Laocoon group, which he considered to be the most outstanding works of ancient art, are still at the top of the lists of ancient guides in Italy. The Sistine Madonna, long since one of the most popular works of art, was described in detail by Winckelmann for the first time and recognized as a masterpiece.

His idea of ​​the ideally beautiful body, in which female and male elements unite, anticipates ideals of the modern gender discourse.

The Long Night tells of a shoemaker's son from Stendal who became a world-class scholar in Rome. From an ambitious young scientist, who a clever coup helped to become the first German-speaking writer with European impact. A restless adventurer, lifelong in search of the beautiful.

It tells of the connections between Winckelmann's image of Greece and the French revolutionaries' idea of ​​freedom from 1789. And of how Winckelmann even influenced the architecture of the American southern states via the library of the architect and later President Thomas Jefferson.



He is considered a founder of archeology and modern art history, as an interpreter of the ancient ideal of life and as a source of ideas for the Weimar Classics. As a writer, Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717 - 1768) brought ancient Greek art closer to the modern public. We often look at the art (not only) of the ancient world, without realizing it, through the prism of his writings. Apollo and the Venus of Belvedere and the Laocoon group, which he considered to be the most outstanding works of ancient art, are still at the top of the lists of ancient guides in Italy. The Sistine Madonna, long since one of the most popular works of art, was described in detail by Winckelmann for the first time and recognized as a masterpiece. His idea of ​​the ideally beautiful body, in which female and male elements unite, anticipates ideals of the modern gender discourse.

The Long Night tells of a shoemaker's son from Stendal who became a world-class scholar in Rome. From an ambitious young scientist, who a clever coup helped to become the first German-speaking writer with European impact. A restless adventurer, lifelong in search of the beautiful. It tells of the connections between Winckelmann's image of Greece and the French revolutionaries' idea of ​​freedom of 1789. And of how Winckelmann, with his view of the beautiful in art and the beautiful human body, shaped the aesthetics of posterity, from classical sculpture to the cult of the body one of Arnold Schwarzenegger.

Stefan Lehmann, Professor of Classical Archeology in Halle.

"So I would say what remains of this brilliant and important description of Winckelmann is the linguistic work of art and then his access, so Johann Joachim Winckelmann is the man who attaches particular importance to the autopsy and that is one of the revolutionary changes in the view of art. That he says we don't have to bring up the knowledge we have, but we have to look at the objects, the works of art and then first advance through a detailed description to the meaning and also to the aesthetic quality. "

The French Germanist Elisabeth Decultot

The curator of the exhibition "Winckelmann. Modern Antiquity", which was on view in the Neues Museum Weimar until summer 2017. Elisabeth Decultot:

"And this picture of Winckelmann that we have before our eyes is a torso because so many facets of his personality have gone under. Winckelmann was not just a German writer, he was an international one who was extreme up to the beginning of the 19th century He was not only a classicist writer, but someone who also emphasized non-classicist elements in his portrayal of the beautiful, such as expression, movement, pathos. And after all, he was not just an art historian and aesthetician, but also a writer and also a scholar who has had a broad reception in diverse areas of knowledge, including, for example, natural history. "

The Germanist Wolfgang von Wangenheim

He has written a book with the title "The discarded stone. Winckelmann's life". A biography that focuses on the connections between Johann Joachim Winckelmann's homosexuality and his artistic aesthetic views. Wolfgang von Wangenheim.

"So the art exhibition in Weimar showed the back of the famous torso, I'll get to it right away, the Berlin exhibition in the gay museum shows the front of that torso. And in my book about Winckelmann, I showed the torso in the title in such a way that it does not refer to the stone, which has been handed down unfinished, is missing the head, the arms, but refers to the person of Winckelmann.
Namely, Winckelmann certainly managed through his descriptions, a supplement, also a rehabilitation of the homosexual. Of course not explicitly, he doesn't do almost anything explicitly, he doesn't say anything specific about his private life, we hardly learn anything. You know that he raved about beautiful young men, that he had contact with them in Rome, and you also know that he was sexually inhibited, he told Casanova himself.
But to the torso as a third example: it describes the back in a tremendous way, he says, unfortunately the head is missing, we have to think of it and imagine it is a Heracles or Hercules. And Winckelmann says that if we are missing so much, then we have to look at what we still have. How monstrous the back is, Winckelmann makes an enchanting description of this back, of this one, that's all there is. And the beautiful belly. And the beautiful belly, in turn, is discovered by a man named Michelangelo, who saw the thing when the thing was discovered, shouted Michelangelo: fantastic, don't throw it away. You can't add to that, you can study it, said that's an example for sculptors. And that stimulus came from the rejected stone. "

Winckelmann Society

Johann Winckelmann - founder of classical archeology and modern art studies

Three hundred years ago, Johann Joachim Winckelmann was born in Stendal in the Altmark. He is considered the founding father of modern art history, the founder of classical archeology. The next three hours tell of Winckelmann's rise from the son of a shoemaker to "Prefect of all antiquities in and around Rome".

"This is the life and the miracles of Johann Winckelmann, born in Stendal in the Altmark!"

Winckelmann writes a biographical letter to a friend from Rome, written on December 8, 1762. It is the eve of his 45th birthday, but Winckelmann only accepts the last 8 years:

I would say I lived until the eighth year, this is the time of my stay in Rome and other cities in Italy. Here I have tried to call back my youth, which I have lost partly in the wilderness, partly in work and grief, and at least I am dying more satisfied, for I have achieved everything I wanted, even more than I could think, hope and earn.

From the poor shoemaker's son from the Prussian province to the prefect on the antiquities of Rome, from the village teacher to the scholar of European standing. His "Thoughts on the Imitation of the Greeks" and his "History of Ancient Art" are among the most widely read books of the Enlightenment. He is the first German writer who also has large editions in France and England. And which has an impact far beyond his scandalous death.

Klaus Haupt: "So after we were on the trail of Ludwig I and Winckelmann in Munich, we also wanted to see the Walhalla. And there are hundreds of busts there. And since we were passing through and the time was a bit cramped, we wanted to find Winckelmann as soon as possible. I asked the lady at the cash register: "Where is Winckelmann?" And she looked at me in a funny way and said: He's not here today. I was disappointed, maybe he is being restored or something, has been loaned. We looked at the other busts, then the lady called from the ticket office: “What do you want from him?” I say, well, I want to see him. “He's free today.” And then it dawned "It's probably about someone called Winckelmann." He writes the same way as hers. "So mine writes with CK, but the one in the Walhalla only writes with K. And Winckelmann is responsible for civil engineering in Regensburg , the interested B esucher also leads through the Walhalla and he had the day off. We found Winckelmann and were satisfied, but it's a nice memory of the visit. "

Klaus-Werner Haupt, on the trail of the classics in Weimar


In 2014, Klaus-Werner Haupt published a Winckelmann biography, the most recent one to date, which was published in Germanenen is. Traveled for his book he to all the places that are connected to the life and work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. Stendal, where he was born in 1717, Trieste, where he was murdered in 1768. Berlin, Salzwedel, Halle and Jena, where he attended schools and universities. The provincial nests Seehausen, Hadmersleben, Osterburg, in which Winckelmann made his way as a teacher. Nöthnitz near Dresden, where, as Count Bünau's librarian, he had access to the learned writings on ancient art, mythology and history for the first time.

After Naples, Pompeii and of course Rome, where Winckelmann spent the most important, creative and, according to his own admission, the freest years of his life. Where he could bathe in an abundance of ancient art treasures, explore them enthusiastically and describe them to a European audience that grew in size from year to year. Some of his descriptions have become canonical.

Klaus-Werner Haupt
Johann Winckelmann
Founder of classical archeology and modern art history
Weimar Publishing Company, 2014
ISBN-10: 3865397182
Johann Joachim Winckelmann, son of a master shoemaker, restless autodidact and the founder of classical archeology and modern art studies, is an example of how a simple citizen with luck and understanding knew how to overcome all the barriers associated with his lower origin. His literary art descriptions as well as his main work - the history of ancient art (1764) - revolutionized the reception of art and influenced not only aesthetics and art criticism, but also literature throughout Europe. The author Klaus-Werner Haupt manages to present Winkelmann's combative vitality and the poetic imagery of his language against a biographical background and his scientific achievements in an instructive and entertaining way for a wide audience.

Author portrait Klaus-Werner Haupt

Klaus-Werner Haupt, born in 1951, was a high school teacher with his students in Weimar on the trail of the classics for many years. He has already published "Johann Winckelmann - Founder of Classical Archeology and Modern Art Studies" in the Weimar publishing company. Haupt is married, has a daughter and lives in Spremberg.

Winckelmann's main work, "The history of ancient art"

"Now we young people heard with jubilation that Winckelmann was returning from Italy and would therefore also come into our field of vision. "
Goethe was 19 when he heard that Johann Joachim Winckelmann was visiting his homeland for the first time after 13 years in Rome. His great idol, even more, the idol of a whole generation. The idea generator of the European classic.
Winckelmann's main work, "The history of the art of antiquity", a Bible especially of the youth, who at the time was enthusiastic in search of the pure, the true and the beautiful.
Goethe, who was studying in Leipzig at the time, plans to meet Winckelmann at Oeser's, the famous painter and close friend of the ancient researcher. He is in a state of excitement and then falls "like a clap of thunder in a clear sky, the news of Winckelmann's death fell between us."

What happened? A thriller, a real robber pistol

In April 1768 Winckelmann set out for Germany. He actually hates traveling, but the calls of his admirers back home have grown louder and louder. He also wants to collect money for a long-planned trip to Greece that has been postponed again and again. In the Tyrolean Alps he is overcome by melancholy. The mountains seem overwhelming to him. He gets a fever and just wants to go back to Rome. He traveled to Trieste via Vienna, where Empress Maria Theresa gave him valuable coins. Befriends a certain Archangeli in the hotel. Who perhaps, so it is speculated afterwards with relish, was a callboy for men. Whose services Winckelmann perhaps accepted and perhaps paid for because he had had little opportunity in life to act out his homosexuality. None of that is probable, but Goethe already expresses a corresponding suspicion in his Winckelmann paper from 1805. Other authors suggest Archangeli may have been a hit man. Hired by Jesuits who did not like Winckelmann's glorification of pagan ancient art. Or from envious archaeologist colleagues. What is certain is that Archangeli murdered his hotel neighbor with seven stab wounds. Cites greed and greed as motives for his act in the court hearing - the record has been handed down in full.

Archangeli is found guilty of robbery and murder and is publicly whacked. Irony of fate: Winckelmann detested the brutal punishments that were common in Italy at the time. In a letter from his trip to Herculaneum, describes a sight that makes him nauseous. The Neapolitan authorities put the heads of beheaded muggers on stakes on the side of the road as a deterrent. Winckelmann's death as novel as his whole life!

Winckelmann's grave in Trieste is forgotten over time and could no longer be found today if, thanks to a coincidence that was significant in terms of culture and history, J. G. Seume had not stayed in the same inn on his hike to Syracus in 1802 where Winckelmann was murdered. And would have gone in search of the grave of the revered scholar.

Johann Joachim Winckelmann's life story is that of a man who rises from the simplest of circumstances to the highest academic and literary fame.
A self-made man whose immense hard work and great ambition made him one of the most outstanding figures of the 18th century in Europe.
That he would become one was not sung to him in the cradle. It was in a shoemaker's room in the Prussian provincial town of Stendal in the Altmarck. It was a long way from there to the supervisor of all ancient art monuments in Rome and the surrounding area, to the founder of modern archeology and art history.

In Stendal, Tappert, the headmaster of the Latin school, noticed his talent. He supports him with a private scholarship, urges him to attend high school and later to study in Halle and Jena.
In the grammar school, Winckelmann is repeatedly reprimanded for illegally reading Homer in the original under the school desk during class. The ancient Greeks did it to him more than anything.

Later, when he was a teacher in Salzwedel and Seehausen, he only allowed himself a few hours of sleep at night while sitting. So as not to waste too much valuable study time. His friends worry about the always pale, nervous young man. All of this still in Prussia.


The big career leap

Librarian at Count Bünau in Saxony. An office that he mainly uses to read everything about the Romans and Greeks, painting and sculpture in the grandiose collection of books. The formative acquaintance and friendship with Adam Oeser, the most important painter of his time. And finally the offer of Alberico Arcintos, friend of Count Bünau and papal nuncio in Saxony: Winckelmann should go to Rome and become papal librarian. Winckelmann was won over by the prospect of having few official duties there, but free access to all galleries and collections of ancient art. He converted to Catholicism and made the arduous journey across the Alps.

A travel episode shows him as a prototype of the unworldly scholar. Shortly behind the Alps, he is served silver cutlery in an Italian country inn. In a letter, he is enthusiastic about the high way of life and culture even of the ordinary Italian population. Any other traveler would have become suspicious: Silver has an antibacterial effect. And it was known that landlords who offered silver cutlery usually saved themselves the washing up.

In Rome, Winckelmann looks at, examines and describes literally every piece of ancient art that he can find anywhere. Goes on trips, archaeological expeditions to Pompeii and Herculaneum, is downright entranced by the abundance that the excavations there bring to light.

Life in rome

At first he thinks life in the big city of Rome is hideous. Complains about the unbearable noise the drunks make outside his window at night. But the discomfort doesn't last long. He learned Italian quickly and well, cavorted in circles of artists and scholars, especially in the antique collections of the Roman nobles and cardinals. Writes to his friend Berendis: "Everything is nothing against Rome!"

He spends thirteen fruitful, free and largely happy years here. Tireless literary work, art historical and archaeological research. Travel to the archaeological sites on the Gulf of Naples. Growing awareness. Which brings him sometimes more and sometimes less annoying guests. The visit of the young Prince Franz von Anhalt-Dessau is mentioned positively in the diary. In contrast to some other offspring of the nobility, who rob Winckelmann of time and nerves.

In 1764 the main work, "The history of the art of antiquity" appears with the ingenious description and aesthetic interpretation of the Laocoon group and the torso of Belvedere, for example. His language is still fresh and inspiring to this day. Winckelmann's sculptural descriptions, written with love and - yes, actually - tenderness for every single detail, it seems, bring the works of art to the reader more vividly, more realistically than the sight of the original could. The work was not only the beginning of modern art history, but also one of the most powerful books in European cultural history, defining style not only for artists and art historians, but above all for writers. Let us name Lessing, who, in succession to Winckelmann, aestheticized the Laookon group (and violently contradicted it). Let's name Goethe and Schiller, the entire Weimar Classic, their ancient image shaped by Winckelmann. Let's call Hölderlin, let's call Lord Byron, let's call Oscar Wilde, all of whom were influenced by Winckelmann in one way or another or worked on him.

Wolfgang von Wangenheim. The rejected stone. Winckelmann's life
Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2005. ISBN: 978-3-88221-861-9

The founder of classicism in a great biography
Johann Joachim Winkelmann (1718 - 1768) is considered to be the founder of classical archeology and modern art studies. His writings were groundbreaking for the change in taste from baroque to classicism. He put a coherent history of style in place of the artists' voices that had been customary up to that point, and with his writings, especially on the art of ancient Greece, he became the leading art scholar not only of his time. For reasons that have not yet been clarified, the internationally respected scholar was murdered in Trieste. The news of his death shook the educated world.

Wolfgang von Wangenheim retraces Winkelmann's educational background in an intensive, inspired and inspiring relecture. Taking into account the posthumous correspondence, the published works of Winkelmann and contemporary statements about the art scholar, he also investigates the epistemological power of his homoeroticism. Wangenheim shows what formative role it played in his view of antiquity and what influence it had on his work. For the first time he succeeds in convincingly depicting the connection between inclination and theory, between Winkelmann's life and work.

Winckelmann, Modern Antiquity. Hirmer Verlag. ISBN: 978-3-7774-2756-0

Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) is considered to be the founder of archeology and art history. With his formula of the "noble simplicity and quiet greatness" of ancient art, he was a pioneer of classicist aesthetics in Europe. Winckelmann's revolutionary work, in which ancient and modern meet, will be re-illuminated on the occasion of his 300th birthday.
Winckelmann grew up in poor conditions. His path took him via Halle, Jena and Dresden to Italy, where he became an international celebrity in papal Rome. Winckelmann was many things: an enthusiastic visionary, a learned enthusiast and a spiritual adventurer who put everything on one card for his lifelong dream. Last but not least, his violent death, which seemed like a "clap of thunder" to Goethe and other contemporaries, made him a classic revered throughout Europe within a few years. As an influential researcher, writer and critic, Winckelmann has significantly shaped our view of antiquity, as the richly illustrated basic work clearly shows.

Winckelmann - The Divine Sex Editor: Wolfgang Cortjaens. on behalf of the Schwules Museum * Berlin ISBN: 978-3-7319-0585-1

Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) is considered the founder of modern archeology and art history. His History of Ancient Art (1764) was an international bestseller and is still a standard work in art history today.
Almost as powerful as his work was Winckelmann, a person shrouded in mystery during his lifetime. His homosexuality, which he himself barely concealed, commented on by such famous contemporaries as Casanova, Herder and Goethe, as well as the mysterious circumstances of his murder in 1768, have always been downplayed by the predominantly heteronormative Winckelmann research. On the occasion of Winckelmann's 300th birthday, the Schwule Museum * Berlin is organizing a small commemorative exhibition on life and work that specifically questions the aspect of his sexual orientation against the background of his reception of antiquity. The end of the exhibition is the time around 1850, when art history finally established itself as a scientific discipline.

The exhibition catalog also gives an initial overview of the rich historical holdings of the Schwules Museum *, especially the Sternweiler Collection. The National Gallery of the National Museums in Berlin, the German Historical Museum in Berlin, the Lindenau Museum Altenburg and several private collections also contributed top-class loans.

Friedrich-Wilhelm von Hase (ed.). Seeking the art of the Greeks with the soul. Winckelmann in his time. Philipp von Zabern Verlag, Darmstadt 2017. ISBN 978-3-8053-5095-2

Johann Joachim Winckelmann, born on December 9th, 1717 in Stendal and died on June 8th, 1768 in Trieste, is considered to be the founder of classical archeology and modern art studies. His life's work - created in just 50 years - influenced many generations of scientists, artists and politicians. To this day, it has shaped the way we look at antiquity to a degree that should not be underestimated. A great talent of Winckelmann was also to build up a Europe-wide network of contacts. The book focuses on this European view of Winckelmann, his contemporaries and his work to this day. A group of renowned authors illuminates the Winckelmann myth from different perspectives and makes the great fascination that emanates from him understandable.

Authors of the show: Tobias Barth, Lorenz Hoffmann and Hartmut Schade. Editor: Dr. Monika Künzel. Director: Tobias Barth. Speaker: Petra Hartung, Hans Henrik Wöhler, Lutz Harder, Axel Thielmann

Music list

  1. hour

    Title: Overture
    Ensemble: Kurpfälzisches Kammerorchester
    Conductor: Hans Oskar Koch
    Composer: Christoph Willibald Gluck
    Label: UNISONO (R)

    Title: Celebratian XV
    Artist: Galileas Nevart-Veron a.o.
    Composer: Theodore Antoniou
    Label: Albany Music Distributors

    Title: Moss 1
    Artist: Barbara Buchholz et al.
    Composer: Tilmann Dehnhard
    Label: Intuition Records
    Record title: Moonstruck

    Title: Öd
    Artist: Barbara Buchholz, Jan Bang a.o.
    Composer: Tilmann Dehnhard
    Label: Intuition Records

    Title: Concerto grosso for strings and basso continuo, op.2 No. 9
    Orchestra: Barockorchester Capriccio Basel
    Composer: Giovanni Lorenzo Gregori
    Label: TUDOR

    Title: Overture
    Ensemble: Philharmonic State Orchestra Halle
    Conductor: Heribert Beissel
    Composer: Christoph Willibald Gluck
    Label: MDR

    Title: Musique de la grece antique
    Artist: Atrium Musicae De Madrid
    Composer: Gregorio Paniagua
    Label: KIDS

    2 hours

    Title: Concerto in D major, op.9 (for harp and orchestra)
    Soloist: Silke Aichhorn (harp)
    Ensemble: Kurpfälzisches Kammerorchester
    Conductor: Stefan Fraas
    Composer: Ernst Eichner
    Label: cpo

    Title: Calm Sea and Happy Voyage. Overture for orchestra, op.27
    Orchestra: London Symphony Orchestra
    Conductor: John Eliot Gardiner
    Composer: Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy
    Label: LSO Live

    Title: Celebratian XV
    Artist: Galileas Nevart-Veron a.o.
    Composer: Theodore Antoniou
    Label: Albany Music Distributors

    Title: Concerto grosso for strings and basso continuo, op.2 No. 9
    Orchestra: Barockorchester Capriccio Basel
    Composer: Giovanni Lorenzo Gregori
    Label: TUDOR

    Title: Invocatio Musarum
    Ensemble: Ensemble Daedalus
    Conductor: Roberto Festa
    Composer: Anonymous
    Label: ALPHA

    Title: Moss 1
    Artist: Jan Bang et al.
    Composer: Tilmann Dehnhard
    Label: Intuition Records

    Title: Overture
    Ensemble: Kurpfälzisches Kammerorchester
    Conductor: Hans Oskar Koch
    Composer: Christoph Willibald Gluck

    Label: UNISONO (R)
    Title: Musique de la grece antique
    Artist: Atrium Musicae De Madrid
    Composer: Gregorio Paniagua
    Label: KIDS

    3rd hour

    Title: Rondo. Un poco moderato (3)
    Soloist: Hariolf Schlichtig (viola)
    Ensemble: Munich Chamber Orchestra
    Conductor: Hariolf Schlichtig
    Composer: Carl Friedrich Zelter, Franz Beyer
    Label: MDR

    Title: Musique de la grece antique
    Artist: Atrium Musicae De Madrid
    Composer: Gregorio Paniagua
    Label: KIDS

    Title: SixEight
    Artist: Barbara Buchholz et al.
    Composer: Tilmann Dehnhard
    Label: Intuition Records
    Record title: Moonstruck

    Title: Overture
    Ensemble: Kurpfälzisches Kammerorchester
    Conductor: Hans Oskar Koch
    Composer: Christoph Willibald Gluck
    Label: UNISONO (R)

    Title: La Marseillaise
    Interpreter: Tambourkorps of the R.F.B. Halle-Merseburg
    Composer: Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle
    Label: Bear Family Records

    Title: Invocatio Musarum
    Ensemble: Ensemble Daedalus
    Conductor: Roberto Festa
    Composer: Tritone
    Label: ALPHA

    Title: Öd
    Artist: Barbara Buchholz et al.
    Composer: Tilmann Dehnhard
    Label: Intuition Records
    Record title: Moonstruck