Is blood an element of mixture or a compound
1In the course of its history, the term «jargon» oscillates on the meaning scale between chatter and scientific code, birdsong and special terminology, red word and opposition discourse. In any case, the term today denotes a hybrid. To quote from the favorite language of the New Objectivity:
Jargon has become easy to use, in a loose way, because of its earlier, much broader senses. It has been in English from the 14th Century from old French jargon: warbling of birds, chatter. Its earlier origins are uncertain. The direct use for birdsong can be found as late as mid 19th century, but extended use for unintelligible sound or talk or writing is just as early and has been more continuous. It developed from the 16th Century a specialized meaning close to "code", but its more general development was in two other directions: 1) to describe unfamiliar and especially hybrid or unfavorable localized forms of speech; 2) to characterize the terms of a opposing religious or philosophical position1.
2Special discourses - like that of medicine or economics - are usually not mentioned in jargon as long as they move in the circle of professionalism. We speak of jargon when elements of technical language migrate into everyday language. Technical languages that are permanently exposed to the public and are dependent on public exchange, such as justice, economics or sociology, are the main suppliers of the idioms of the jargon. The language of the administration, which mediates this exchange as an institution, shapes the jargon to a large extent. The term jargon thus indicates an invasion of special discourses, denotes the moment of their immigration, but not the successful integration into colloquial language. As a rule, the jargon is the stage for an unfortunate encounter between two stories.
3 That the literary field of the twenties promoted the jargon and wrested aesthetic charms from it was made possible by various circumstances:
- When the self-understanding of the independence of art disappears, the boundaries of the literary field become unstable and thus the boundaries to the surrounding fields of the pragmatic discourse become easily passable;
- With the orientation towards the social function of literature, connections to forms of discourse in sociology, economics, justice and administration were sought;
- Phases of "realistic" literature are generally characterized by the fact that they are based on leading scientific discourses and try to assimilate their style of thinking;
- Genres were considered to be “operational” if they could point to direct links to discourses that were directly interwoven in political decision-making processes;
- Against the purity law of a "cultural" practice that excluded the language of modern science in order to emphasize the contrast to the civilizational, the lexical "pollution" is experienced as a special aesthetic attraction and as a connection to the republican public:
- The jargon is regarded as a medium for exploring the possibilities of improper speech.
4One can consider the advance of the jargon in terms of the crisis of esoteric literature; on the other hand, one can also emphasize the productivity in the exchange of the fields of discourse. In the following, we will not focus on the new words that penetrated colloquial language and literature in the twenties2, such as
5 Compensation / trench coat / knockout / antenna / standardize / photomaton / synchronize / prohibition / cultural Bolshevism / sex appeal / flash talk / radio report / steel furniture / crepe soles / tracksuit / flapper / companionship / frigidaire / sipo / kitchen area / ice cream parlor / tube and calorie complex / weekend complex / inferiority .
6With these words, we are interested in the models of thought that are adopted with technical vocabulary or terms from boxing, radio or the film industry. “Clinch” is not a synonym for embrace, and when hostile “price pockets” are dug up, neologism draws our attention to the extent to which the market situation of “inventory sell-off” is overlaid by memories of war3.
7In the following, 40 "modern" sayings from the period 1919 to 1932 are collected. They come from political commentaries, diaries, essays, speeches, cultural histories, art programs, and sociological research. In this list they form an archive of anonymous sayings which, taken out of context, circulate in the market like tinkling coins. They are not necessarily used to exchange arguments. Not aiming at knowledge in every case, they always demonstrate a habitus that I call newobjective.
8 In the second part of Walter Serner's "Handbrevier für Hochstapler" 4 you can read the advice on improper speech under number 338: "Better to speak conventionally than in principle if you have time, rather chatting than informative, if you want to gain strength"! Since in the new decade everything depended on time and strength, we have to reckon with improper speech. Our sayings are neither resting points of knowledge nor moments of wild expression. Rather, they are trial treatments that test how a certain attitude looks in the landscape of the discourse. If one wanted to associate a physiognomic trait with this posture, it would be the smile as a "gesture of the mask" that says everything and nothing, "the representative gesture par excellence" (H. Plessner). In one of Serner's crime stories from the volume "The Whistle Around the Corner", an international check forger comes to an understanding with a Scotland Yard specialist who wants to make a "deal" with him - a small moment of consensus, admit: "Among high experts like us, a dizzying height (of the bluff, HL) must first be reached so that certain matters of trust can arise again" 5 - Trust as a tactical move that, like all communication, needs to be considered soberly. The story of the «murder of the Marchese de Brignol-Sale» tells of the contact of a crook with a bandit. Here, too, a heart and a soul, as the following dialogue reveals:
“It is particularly difficult, almost impossible, to communicate if you do not - pretend to have at least a very small amount of trust. Just like the better player dictates something to the weaker player! " “But basically I always wonder when I succeed. This is one of the clearest sources of distrust ». She was silent. It seemed to Sorhul that she was smiling imperceptibly. “It is probably impossible at all to speak other than à fonds perdu”.
«Not at all. Often it is enough to even talk to each other in order to recognize the opposing target. What one says is completely indifferent. »6
9The authenticity formulas of the Expressionist decade were already regarded as mannerisms at the beginning of the 1920s; in Dadaism, the devaluation of sincerity becomes a cult. The consciousness of an inner space shielded from the inauthenticity of the outside, on which the authenticity formulas were based, disappears. Attention shifts to the external figurations; people's emotional lives increasingly appear to be a function of the way in which they are spatially and socially organized. The time for authentic speech is over. Instead one reads7:
10– «A shot in a small room simulates more reflexes than its effect; the reflexes flood the effect. The sociological reflexes flood the metaphysical effect (0).
- "Progress only progresses where it is profitable, otherwise its ways are, let's say dark" (1).
- "The world war was a business that did not pay off for anyone" (2).
- "If something works, it is teeming with genius - if not with criminals and guilty" (3)
- «We changed the company, but the store stayed the same» (4).
- "The soil of the facts is a universal means for those who have the talent to make it productive soil" (5).
- «The AEG electrifies Russia: so the communist world had to become acceptable to the bourgeois soul» (6).
- «We prefer to exist" unclean "than to perish as" clean "» (7).
- «Newspaper German with all its sloppiness, sprinkled with dilettantism and bloody coincidence, is still more effective, because reality is behind it, than the polished perfection of the form of things that have had their day» (8).
- "All art magazines are only separate supplements to the corresponding daily newspapers (external feature section)" (9).
- "The most essential, mercantile view into the heart of things today is called advertising" (10).
- «Radio, Marconigramm and Telophoto deliver us from ethnic isolation to the world community. Our apartment is becoming more mobile than ever: mass rental houses, sleeping cars, residential yachts and transatlantic are undermining the local concept of home »(11).
- «Magic has lost its traction in our disenchanted world. Their miracles seem antiquated in comparison with those of the intellect, and it seems a bit absurd that they behave so seriously when the radio dominates the room. The naked banality is more mysterious than the implausible delusion that it foolishly only tries to cover up »(12).
- «The imagination of men is not free; it marches, very simply, in the direction of the energies »(13).
- «The specific energy that Emil Fischer used in the synthesis of glucose balances the strongest humanistic achievements» (14).
- «Today I am already told more with the few words" aesthetic-schizothymic type "than with a long individual description» (15).
- "The smallest fact from the connection between character and blood-gland equilibrium opens up more perception of the soul than a five-storey idealistic system" (16).
- «Do not make any decisions during the first conversation, but think about the physiognomy of the new author for a few days. His appearance gives you more insight into what he can do than what breaks out of him as a stream of speech »(17).
- «Proof of the correctness of the newspaper is that you buy it» (18).
- «Weltanschauungen are working hypotheses» (19).
- «Proof that a work has scientific value can only be provided by contradicting the common sensé at most in order to promote it» (20).
- "As someone moves, so is the meaning of his life" (21).
- "The mass is superior to the despised of mass culture among the educated insofar as it recognizes the facts unveiled in the raw" (22).
- "Without a doubt, a course book is more important today than the last fray of the unique experience through the bourgeois novel" (23).
- «The erotic moves to the periphery, the sociological, economic and political to the center. Don Juan in its endless variations has run down, and in its place comes the fighting man, politician, athlete, businessman ”(24).
- "Singing is first and last a purely physical act. A versatile mechanism of diaphragm, vocal cord and pelvic muscles, a whole vertical trunk of organs is set in motion in order to produce this everyday miracle of sounding sound" (25).
- "Of course, it is already nonsense to have a column adorned by Phidias and to call the subway a mere means of transport" (26).
- «There is no longer any fate, the Parzen have found shelter as directors with a life insurance company, eel breeding is established in the Acheron, the ancient idea of the terrible human being is under general participation at the opening of the hygiene exhibition, while the German streams in Passing on different colored robes, deeply moved, returned to their normal content »(27).
- «The increase in combative morality in the character of the city dweller is very seldom due to an idealistic disposition or to new beliefs. We consider it a consequence of the traffic »(28).
- «To the elderly, a bike like our tires would certainly have seemed clumsy and unattractive, we admire the elasticity of the combination of steel, rubber, air and see it as exquisite beauty, because we feel the different forces of the 3 materials» (29).
- "It is the hydraulic pressure of the economic system that overpopulates our swimming pools" (30).
- «The decisive laws of their class are economic; there they are no more suitable for real actions with thinking than with playing the piano ”(31).
- «The statistics, that's the youth! No power in the world can beat it, it is invincible like number »(32).
- "But the angry princess said: You have to fulfill three tasks: 1. Hit Nurmi, 2. Repair the vacuum cleaner and 3. Be able to explain what the NSDAP and the KPD want" (33).
- «The private fate, the private position of the personality are unimportant. ... psychology is cowardice. The interior turning ... has become the exterior turning. The guilty conscience was a convenient excuse. The drama of guilty conscience is just as convenient »(34).
- «You can deceive the director, but never the apparatus» (35)
- «The fact that the same type of conductor who is insatiable and absorbed in celebrating the Adagio from Bruckner's Eighth, like a corporate boss usually expects to unite as many organizations, institutes and orchestras as possible in his hand, is the exact social correlate to the individual nature of his figure, that in capitalism has to bring musical trust and inwardness to the common denominator »(36).
- "But the sensations of the heart and the systems of the mind are refutable, while an object is irrefutable, and such an object is the machine gun" (37).
- «History has nothing to do with human logic. A thunderstorm, an earthquake, a lava flow that indiscriminately destroy people are related to the elementary events of world history without a plan ”(38).
- «The world is getting smaller and smaller. Do not forget it. Otherwise it can happen to you that you think you are far from the shot and you stand in front of the gun barrel »(39).
11 “Weltanschauungen are mixtures of vocabulary”, it was said in 1919 in Walter Serner's Dadaist manifesto “Last Loosening”. Fourteen years later, Brecht noted “Weltanschauungen are working hypotheses”. Some of the sayings quoted here form a reflex to the desire for a provocative mixture of vocabulary, others try out a scientific attitude with their help.
Almost all sayings are characterized by bipolarity, which the mixture of vocabulary distributes on the magnetic field of the binary scheme: body chemistry versus character, radio versus magic, petroleum versus soul, commerce versus correctness, function versus substance. The sphere of indolence meets agility, disposition knowledge meets the biological base, speech meets silent violence. The "polarity thinking" (a term that Theodor Lessing coined in the mid-twenties), which has steered the controversial discourses of modernization since the mid-18th century, suddenly appears in its pure culture, i.e. as a scheme:
Rooted vs. Mobility
Symbiosis vs separation
Heat vs cold
Opacity vs transparency etc.
The accounting listing of the oppositions is evidently experienced as a delightful shock (see the opposition schemes that Brecht, Benjamin, Roh and Meyer draft in their reflections on art), as if in the twilight of modernity the long hidden scheme suddenly appeared in neon letters the scenes.
In contemporary speech, the pole of mobility / separation / coldness is valued. The mere swapping of the accents of value is supposed to guarantee modernity (an indication of how reversible the swap is, how easy it is to turn back from radio to magic, from mass tenement to the local term home, or more precisely: how artificial the difference between radio and magic, from Mass tenement house and home is charged in the Proverbs and how naturally one pole should become the medium of the other).
For the time being, however, the desire to retreat into an opaque room is answered by the song of praise for a life in complete transparency; the desire for constancy is answered by praise from the temporary room.
A second look at the collected sayings shows, however, that exchanging the accents of value does not remove the polar tension. Almost all sentences shimmer between assimilation and defense against modernization. They generate the tension between distant areas of value such as electricity and soul, advertising and substance, not with the effect that one pole (slowness, darkness, warmth) would be deleted without replacement, but to evoke its presence as a resistance one last time: radio and Magic, trust and inwardness, life assurance and destiny.On the one hand, the proverbs show a positive tendency that Max Weber called the “disenchantment of the world”. He understood it to mean “the knowledge of it or the belief that one could experience it at any time, if one only wanted, that there are (...) in principle no mysterious, unpredictable powers that play into it, that one can rather do all things - in principle - be able to master through calculation »8. In the same breath, however, they note that the fate of the non-feasible rules over the scientifically delimitable "objectivity". Max Weber: "The many old gods, disenchanted and therefore in the form of impersonal powers, rise from their graves, strive for power over our lives and begin their eternal struggle with one another again". The premonition of this contradiction leads to the pathos of the new objective speech, the defiance justifies the heroic attitude of the "cold look" and the "merciless objectivity" from case to case. But it also explains why at the same time «magical realism» can be fascinating and begins to dominate in the final phase of the republic, when the sphere of the reasonably calculable disappears, after the middle phase of the republic for a moment the rationalistic and the magical variant as «wings» of the new objectivity in balance seemed to have brought.
In the proverbs one encounters the commonplace of the new objective decade that ideas which have no interests behind them and therefore cannot be entered into any "lines of force" of society "inevitably embarrass themselves." This judgment could count on general approval in the field of politics and economics. Its transference to cultural phenomena had a provocative effect. Proverb No. 13 proclaims: «Man's imagination is not free; it marches, very simply, in the direction of the energies! " The certainty that the "higher categories of being and value (...) are inherently the weaker ones that fail if they are not carried along on the backs of the lower basic categories" penetrates the "ethics" of Nikolai Hartmann (1926).
Our calendar sayings show how the spiritual rider is thrown off the back of the basic category and ends up in the ditch of the "facts". In the first years of the republic, the dropping itself seems to offer a more fascinating spectacle than the subsequent actions in the trench of the baseness. The fact that the term "embarrassment" is initially used to designate this case indicates that this process is still experienced as more private and emphasizes a moment of offense that is not present in the term "disenchantment".
As early as April 1919, one read in issue 1 of the “opponent” the political justification for the turn of a formerly expressionist-inspired generation to the “lower” category: “The field on which they (the bourgeoisie, HL) can be defeated is not that Spirit, since it is age-oriented, but the gears of mechanical machinery ». In 1926 Siegfried Kracauer gave a more elaborate explanation:
It happens for the sake of the truth, which is revealed as a logical compulsion in the historical process, that the worldly realm of economic facts has gained the determining topicality. For if the cultural structures linked to them have been put to shame by the intrinsic power of the material factors, an order cannot be achieved other than by changing these factors, which in turn presupposes their bare emergence from all sheaths that conceal and hide them. The place of truth itself is therefore present in the midst of "common" public life; not because the economic and social would be something in and of themselves, but because it is the condition
20All ideological constructions must identify themselves “in the smallest possible place”, “because the construction of the human structure has its fault here” 10.
The lowest place in modern proverbs is by no means always economics. It is also physiology and sociology, and to a lesser extent psychoanalysis (more like eagles), which are replaced by sport and intercourse. New are the points of view of functionalism, which understands people's emotional life as a function of the way in which they are spatially and socially organized, and behaviorism, which locates people in the scheme of stimulus and reflex.
In a series of proverbs, the polar scheme is mapped on a time axis: the inertia of the cultural area with its slow mentality is played off against the rapid surge of civilization. The humanistic idea is suspected of being conceived by people "who could move at most 60 km an hour" 11. Countless sayings could be quoted, modeled after the famous sentence of the Futuristic Manifesto, which weighs the racing car against the Nike of Samothrace: the dynamo machine can compete with Cologne Cathedral and set a speed record with Faust II.
23The polar structure to which Proverbs are subject excludes shades and the possibility of the third. The poles are constructed and charged in such a way that they only allow one opposite pole, which is constructed like its counterpart. (As with Max Weber the pole of the bureaucracy is constructed as such a fatefully anonymous power that the charismatic individual has to answer it at the Gepenpol). The radicalism of writers like Walter Serner or Bert Brecht lies in the fact that they sound out in their writing what the field of action and the subject would look like if the traditional opposite pole (e.g. the charismatic individual) were eliminated. You explore the possibilities of one-dimensionality.
The polar structure of the modern jargon may be seen as an indication of a hasty and barely tolerated agreement to modernization. If Ernst Jünger has asserted that the values of the 19th century "burned" in the material battles of the First World War, this can hardly be proven. Rather, the sayings from the period 1919-1932 suggest that the process of burning traditional values is only now taking place in the new objective hybrid in the mixed area of the republic.
The jargon of the New Objectivity is by no means just an indication of a superficial "shift in the scenery", as Gottfried Benn suspected. Does the exchange of vocabulary really not touch the old mentalities, as Benn suggests?
At that time the heroes were called Hans and Gretchen, today they are Evelyn and Kay, at that time they offered each other on page 200 behind a rose hedge and promised themselves for life, today when a tire change or a propeller breaks they take pupils on their sporty tanned features, discuss business, their complexes open up and decide to go into the clinch of kisses for the next fortnight.
26Just a harmless exchange of vocabulary? Even the Anglo-Saxon coloring of the vocabulary included foreignities that were excluded from traditional thinking. And the mixture of technical language, psychoanalysis and boxing that Benn produces does not leave the construction of the mentality untouched.
Was the jargon of the New Objectivity the combustion medium of humanistic values? To put it another way: is he - as he was accused - cynical? In order to answer this question, contexts have to be reconstructed, the anonymity of the sayings removed and the type of argumentation weighted. Proverb No. 18 comes from Hermann von Wedderkop. His sentence "Proof of the correctness of the newspaper is that you buy it" has a different sound as a principle of the head of sales of a newspaper than when the head of the political department or the editor-in-chief of a opinion paper uttered it. In this case it comes from the editor of the art magazine “Der Cross-Section” and is related to saying no. 8 in the article “Changes in taste” from July 1926, a manifesto of the New Objectivity. In Wedderkop's magazine, different varieties of an amoral attitude can be studied that stem from the European tradition of dandyism. "Without interest in the dawn, in the future and in the wisdom of foresight", one reads in it in March 1925, "we just follow our instincts. The cross-section is a function, not an object ». There is no doubt that the mixture of “instinct” and calculation, “bloody coincidence” and English club life, delicate vignette and politician portrait presented in the magazine can hardly deny its origins from Dadaism. Between this wild mixture, however, and Wedderkop's portrait of Mussolini from June 1930, there is a range of neo-objective speech, the ferment of which is actually “cynicism”.
28 Peter Sloterdijk has also described cynicism as a characteristic feature of contemporary discourse13. Weimar culture, according to Sloterdijk, feels the "pain of modernization more violently, expresses its disillusionment in a colder and sharper manner" than comparable situations of upheaval. That made them cynical. Sloterdijk attaches two opposing mixing elements to the phenomenon of cynicism: fear of decomposition and “coldness of reason”. The more brilliantly this cynicism is formulated in the Weimar Republic, the more clearly its complementary motives should come to light in the new objective speech: that of injury and that of stoic reflection. The cynicism, Sloterdijk believes, points to a wound that was once inflicted on the cynical speaker, reminiscent of an embarrassment against which he wants to arm himself once and for all. The bipolar nature of cynicism seems to him characteristic of a jargon whose "wit comes from the cold". This view is confirmed by numerous self-expressions of the new objective writers who came from Expressionism. In the «Cross Section through 1921» one reads the almost programmatic description of this type of «cynical» author who - «like the clown who puts a chalk blanket over his face so as not to betray his human feelings any longer» - practices impassibility: «He cures the effeminate mind with harshness, the sentimental through cynicism, the habitually stale through paradox (...)» 14.
The polarity that we observed in modern proverbs seems to confirm this view. The example of Wedderkop shows us at the same time the dynamics of the jargon: the attitudes of indifference and amorality coupled to it can extinguish the pole of mind and substance. There is then nothing behind the "chalk blanket" that is not already chalk. When Lion Feuchtwanger lets his character Tüverlin talk cynically about the judiciary in the novel "Success", then the two-pole nature of his simulated harshness is easy to see. When the legal theorist Carl Schmitt defines the principle of sovereignty, there is no trace of the pain of an injured sense of the law, as Sloterdijk suggests in contemporary speech. When Arnold Gehlen reflected on the habit in 1927 in order to break the path philosophically for the new cultural habitus of adaptation, his speech was one-dimensional; when Ernst Jünger uses the same image as Gehlen in 1932 in "Arbeiter", it becomes bipolar. We want to quote both passages because the example of Jünger shows the interference of the discourses, while in Gehlen's way of speaking the sentimental hybrid is removed.
30Gehlen explains his reflections on habit in his philosophical essay on a “concrete phenomenon of nature”. His example comes from Burkamp's observations on the causality of psychological processes. With him he wants to test the principle that everything that is necessary for life, what constitutes and enables life, is well innate have to be. He wants that on him Will to the non-identical, that only enables survival, illustrates and thus undoubtedly touches on a leitmotif with which the New Objectivity was directed against the cult of the authentic. But he proves this with an experiment with protozoa, the infusoria, those very small animals with eyelashes as movement tools, mouth, anus and pulsating bladder:
The Infusorium Stentor tends to induce a very light touch or a fine jet of water to withdraw into the tube. A repetition seems much weaker and ultimately no longer at all. If you allow for more urgent nuisance from drizzling carmine grains, the animal reacts first by continued curvature, then by reversing the blink of an eye, then by temporarily withdrawing into the tube, and finally by detaching and continuing to migrate15.
One obtains instruction - in a modern way - if possible from the lower region. The example demonstrates: Reduction of the risk through increased mobility, - quod erat demonstrandum. What Sloterdijk calls the “pain of modernization” cannot be accommodated in the infusorian parable. The living being reacts to harassment by getting used to it or by fleeing. The lament against alienation is not without defiance countered by the praise of conformity. Often experienced stimuli, so Gehlen teaches, which are initially perceived as pain, initially drive responses that are then left a little later as an uneconomical expenditure of energy. Adaptation instead of uneconomical protest. Whoever wants to survive gets used to it. Those who do not get used to it are selected. But the monotonously stimulated muscle becomes more and more powerful and more eager to act. This could not be refuted biologically and had nothing to do with bipolar cynicism. This form of neo-objective thinking is not characterized by the combination of fear of decomposition and coldness of reason. When, on the other hand, the infusoric image returns in Ernst Jünger's work "Der Arbeiter", it is supplemented by a dimension that is missing in Gehlen's work. Jünger's writing is also shaped by the tenor of praise for adapting to the conditions of mobilization. In contrast to Gehlen, he does not only clog the infusoria with carmine grains. It takes greater caliber of enemy action to explain why the "individual" cannot be saved even by habituation:
So it is not within this mass that we seek out the individual. Here we only encounter the sinking individual, whose suffering is engraved in tens of thousands of faces and whose sight fills the viewer with a feeling of senselessness, of weakening. One sees the movements become dull, like in a vessel of infusoria into which a drop of hydrochloric acid has fallen. There is a difference in form, but not in substance, whether this process takes place silently or catastrophically16.
In a habitus copied from the Italian futurists, Jünger makes no secret of the fact that he wants to see a process accelerated which, like "hydrochloric acid", will precipitate the infusoria. The new objective avant-garde deliberately changes the environment in his mind game. The natural history example is used to be brought together in hard coincidence with the discourse of the suffering of the individual. So it has only one meaning: to refer to the habitus of "coldness" of the new objective observer.
Up to now, our reflections on the jargon of New Objectivity have scarcely marked the point at which literary works could be snatched from the anonymous horizon of proverbs. From the perspective suggested here, should their contours have dissolved in the flow of the circulating sayings? This cannot be ruled out and should be checked on a case-by-case basis; because what contemporaries still portrayed itself as a striking figure often becomes blurred in the retrospective in the sea of surrounding discourses. Here the attempt was made to capture the volume of the new objective discourse17. In it, the claim to a sovereign speech gesture is difficult to redeem by the individual work, because the volume is already completely filled by the rumbling of modern-day speech. In this respect, my attention has had to overlook the individual signature of the works in favor of the "thousand blind complicities" of the comprehensive discourse. I am aware of the methodological reprehensibility of the procedure: for it was only through the individual works that the concept of New Objectivity gained the sharpness that enables the exploration of the field of discourse. The individual works were by no means just passive points of crystallization in the nutrient solution of an existing discourse, but rather they provided impulses for the formation of jargon and at the same time they functioned as a medium of reflection for the jargon, in which retrospective science can more easily identify its peculiarities. In their staging of the jargon, new factual works made it clear to what extent modern consciousness is already shaped by technical principles, what consequences the principle of standard size and replaceable parts, the elimination of idle and unused energy, the optimal effect and the avoidance of friction in the body world. Works such as “Man is Man”, “The Italian Night”, “Oops, We Live”, “The Artificial Silk Girl”, “Escape Without End”, “Berlin Alexanderplatz”, “Fabian” ... also form a reflection medium of polarities, who only displayed the sayings in a striking way.In this medium, the proverbs meet the imagination of the body world: newspaper German becomes bloody coincidence and the swimming pools are presented in such a way that it is physically visible that it is the hydraulic pressure of the economic system that overpopulates them. Ultimately, a subject who would fit the slogans of mobility is only found - as in the “Reader for City Dwellers” or “Workers” - a figure from whom all traces of individuality are obsessively removed in order to ensure its sheer survival. The discourse is looking for one.
34Bearer, the human subject naturally serves itself; but since it threatens to charge the discourse with ambivalences from which it has just been purified, he drops it. "Man is the mistake," sighs Brecht, who allowed himself to be carried very far by the discourse after he started it. These authors let the modernization discourse fail less because of the intervention of a moral judgment than because of that of the body: "The body is stubborn" (Günther Anders). In Brecht's didactic pieces, where the discourse drifts in its most extreme form, the focus is consequently on the extinction of the body. It is not the intervention of moral judgment that forces most of his adepts to give up the new objective habitus, but the premonition that it is overtaxing the human constitution. The sudden disappearance of the cold cult is a clear indication of this.
The new object hybrid disintegrated before the beginning of the 1930s. Sciences closer to the body such as biology and ethology are now available as leading discourses; but in a state framework that will not give the body much chance. Most of the contemporary literature is sentimental, as indicated by the structure of the proverbs. The jargon was used as a practice in a language that gets by without the categories of "substance" and without the assumption of "authenticity", but to which the speaker is still addicted and to which he will eventually chain himself when he (God knows, too late) realizes that with the negation of the concept of substance, his body was also put at risk.
A final example is intended to demonstrate the possibilities of literature to infiltrate the jargon. When the Berlin urban planning officer Martin Wagner defended his concept for the redevelopment of Alexanderplatz, he succeeded in speaking neo-objective terms in optima forma. The terminology used by urban planners also forms a chain of hybrids. In it the behavioristic view of passers-by is mixed with the machine metaphor, the idea of the organism with the technical ideal of the streamline; the electricity metaphor with market laws. In this mixture, the planner easily solves the problem of coordinating flows and damming, passing and buying, emptying and filling:
The Weltstadtplatz is an almost permanently filled traffic lock, the "clearing" point of a network of arterial roads of the first order (...) The traffic capacity of a square is in turn a function of the traffic capacity of the traffic roads that lead into the square (...) The flowing traffic on the square is a must “Stand traffic”, which captures the consumer power of the crowds crossing the square (shops, bars, department stores, offices, etc.) (…). A cosmopolitan city square is a stopping point and a transit lock in one form: a stop for consumer power and a transit lock for flowing traffic18.
37Robert Musil's answer to this perception of the cosmopolitan city square is ironic: the drawing board is transparent, reality is completely opaque. The first chapter of "Man without Qualities" is characterized by parodies of the modern-day style. Musil plays the functionalist gaze against a precise perception, which has to blur everything. The demand for transparency in the construction of the cosmopolitan city square makes one blind to a perception in which it looks like a picture of Jackson Pollok:
Cars shot out of narrow, deep streets into the shallowness of bright places. Pedestrian darkness formed cloudy strings. Where stronger lines of speed ran right through their loose rush, they thickened, then trickled more quickly and after a few oscillations had their regular pulse again. Hundreds of tones were twisted into a wiry noise from which individual points protruded, ran along its sharp edges and leveled themselves further, from which clear tones splintered and flew away19.
In his novel, Musil allows perception to oscillate between the rational construction and impressionistic "noise" in order to get a grip on reality in the swing of the pendulum.
A third example of a cosmopolitan city introduces us to a leading discourse that is easily displaced from the New Objectivity scene because it will only dominate in the 1930s, although, as the example of Gehlen showed, it began to establish itself in the 1920s. Here, as early as 1923, the view of the cosmopolitan street was modeled by a thought model of animal behavior research, which, however, is still overlaid by the machine model of Taylorism:
The big cities are a strange and powerful machine. In their streets you can almost physically feel the vortex of impulses and tensions that these people carry, that they emanate and that take hold of them. According to observations on birds, these animals should prefer to fly together because moving the wings in the same direction supports the neighboring birds among themselves and makes it easier for them to fly. A certain machine principle has been derived from this observation. This observation explains something else: it shows that imitation has an economic purpose, the saving of energy; it explains the human tendency to imitate and the tendency of masses to move in the same direction. In this way, the people in the big city are now induced to steadily adopt the big city pace20.
Towards the end of the republic, the hybrids of neo-objective jargon broke apart in the literary field; it does not go away, as studies on language under dictatorship show. Is it the tremendous pressure to make decisions in recent years that, after the productive exchange of scientific discourses and the arts, is blackmailing more "authentic" speech? A new genre such as the “non-fiction book” is emerging, which takes on the literarization of scientific discourse and relieves the burden on esoteric discourse; the technology cult migrates from the realms of an isolated «asphalt culture» into everyday life under National Socialism, and the swing movement only gained widespread impact far beyond the metropolises in the 1930s and jazz as a ferment of the art avant-garde loses its importance21. The brilliant media hybrids of the twenties no longer have a stage.
41The "jargon", we asserted at the beginning, has, in terms of the history of its meaning, a span between the twittering of birds and scientific code; and it seems, in retrospect, one of the happier phases in which improper speech dominated. In May 1932, which was quite out of place, the jargon was once again used vigorously. The Oberdada Johannes Baader (he had long been forgotten) brings the jargon back to the "warbling of birds". A healing shock in times that were just getting ready to speak very authentically:
Ex cathedra physika 22.
From Einstein through the Plancke borehole to Heisenberg,
Near Schrödingen on the Broglie, I went with you
Ladies and gentlemen, physical scientists,
Honestly, in all seriousness, etcetera,
And I found the soul with you
in the direction with which the periods of
And their limits
To be shaped by the originless origin in oneself.
But now I'm breaking up with you
Because in the magic of their photonic magnetons,
In addition to the hydrogen nucleus as the proton pole of the electrons,
Plus the neutron, matron, cartridge, Ba-, Ka-,
Ying, yang, quinones, zapone, ion and lemon,
All of which go far beyond the bean song
Can't find your way around yourself - sorry!
And I give up with thanks and compliments
For who, based on their notions,
And on your notions
And on all of your formulas!
So common sense spoke to the "coral",
That they are the very latest from the very latest
The Homo Diraciensis Leszynski
Into the astonished world and environment
Your atomic space wave surge tides inserted.
- Nestle is an Israeli company
- What is special about the Tesla ATV
- What is the future for Mugabe
- How useful is automation
- Are Phones Social Media Bad For Children?
- We should all have experience with Python
- How is the light spectrum arranged
- Why are Wimbledon tickets so expensive
- Realme 5 supports a dual SIM card
- What is Gigabit Ethernet
- What is the Lovecraftian Video Game
- Can civil engineers design houses
- Is Portugal real
- What is the ground clearance of the car
- How Often Should I Get Tooth Scaling?
- What is the explanation for 1
- Why is asbestos still being used
- What exactly are carbon pens
- What is the difference between CR2032 and CR2032e
- How does shaving cream taste
- How is DNA translated
- What bird does MM have in its name
- What is the future of wireless data
- Which RPA tool supports Chrome