What is the Persian word for wireless?

500 BC Mounted Persian royal messengers carry messages over a distance of up to 2500 km by means of relay within a week.


1 short history of communication 1 antiquity 3500 BC Beginning of a communication that goes beyond the immediate temporal and spatial environment of the individual people: The Middle Eastern high cultures of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Syria, Persia and Asia Minor develop writings, build cities and roads. Ships allow the Minoan ruling house on Crete a new dimension of locomotion and thus the exchange of goods and information. From 6th century BC From the pre-Socratic Thales to Socrates, Plato and Aristotle to the Roman Empire, all philosophers know not only their contemporaries, but also their masterminds, on whose basis they are based. The communication of the upper class works perfectly in the areas of philosophy, science, technology and art across geographical and temporal boundaries. 500 BC Mounted Persian royal messengers carry messages over a distance of up to 2500 km by means of relay within a week. 490 BC A messenger brings the news of the victory of the Athenians over the Persians on the battlefield of Marathon. According to tradition, the messenger should have announced the victory after km and then collapsed dead on the spot. 450 BC Origin of optical telegraphy: The Greek historian Herodotus reports that information is transmitted by means of torches. In all parts of the Swiss Central Plateau, Roman culture has dominated since the beginning of our era. The upper class is very mobile. Roman engineering made it possible to build sewers and sewers. Drinking water and sewage disposal are the prerequisites for the formation of cities, which in turn are connected with each other by efficient roads. The first means of mass communication are presentations in amphitheaters, for example the one at the military center in Vindonissa (near today's Windisch). 2 Early Middle Ages. The church has maintained continuity since antiquity by handing on ancient knowledge and writing skills. Instead of the Roman provincial administration, it imposed taxes and compulsory labor on the population. 537 All areas of today's Switzerland north of the Alps are under the rule of the Franconian Merovingians. The feudal system begins to develop. 843 With the Treaty of Verdun, the western part of the Franconian Empire is separated. The French hereditary monarchy emerges, which is able to establish a central state based on the Roman model. In the capital Paris, the lines of communication converge as they did in Rome, from where instructions are issued. In the course of time, the French kings achieved extensive control over communication in their territory, which later enabled an absolutist state leadership. 1/8

2 3 High Middle Ages century. In the economic heyday of the High Middle Ages, collective agriculture in three-field farming prevailed. The uneducated nobility is relatively mobile and exercises its rule by traveling around (travel royalty). 4 Late Middle Ages. The councils of the Catholic bishops represent the first pan-European communication platforms since ancient times. While the church is still the most important communication channel, the cities are developing into new, more dynamic forces. The journeyman craftsmen who travel from city to city for training perform an independent but essential function in the exchange of information. The city governments are building communication with friendly cities from approx. The woodcut is discovered as a reproduction technique Johannes Gutenberg invents the art of book printing with movable ones in Mainz Even if book printing is still very complex, much larger editions can be realized than with the previously common handwritten copy of Texts. The dissemination of information is largely subject to censorship, although still only a narrow, mostly clerical layer is able to read and write. The 1282-page Gutenberg Bible sets quality standards for books. 5 Renaissance and Reformation The universal genius Leonardo da Vinci gained new knowledge in a wide variety of sciences. But he is so far ahead of his time that he can reveal elements of his knowledge relatively generously without becoming indispensable. His inventions bring long-term benefits, because many of his construction sketches can only be understood and implemented centuries later. At the same time as Calvin in Geneva and Luther in Wittenberg, Huldrych Zwingli carried out the Reformation in Zurich. Most of the other cities followed suit, thereby ending the communicative sovereignty of the church in its domain. 6 Early Modern Age 1519 / The epoch from the Reformation to the Revolution is characterized by strong population growth, which is interrupted by regular famine and epidemic catastrophes. Furthermore, people usually only move around to transport something, as a messenger or in search of food. At most, visiting a party or a wine tavern triggers voluntary mobility. Various scientists are experimenting in the field of optical telegraphy. However, neither the bar telegraph, wing telegraph nor the heliograph succeeded in asserting themselves. Bars and sunlight as conveyors of signals are replaced by electrical devices. Beginning of the construction of highways based on the French model on all important transit routes in the Central Plateau. The high-performance roads are characterized by a direct course, even gradients, a substructure and a surface that allows the water to run off. 2/8

3 1750 Although the first newspapers appeared, the inns remained the main source of information for the majority of the male population for a long time. Meanwhile, the women exchange information while spinning, sewing and fetching water at the village well. 7 Modern times From 1800 onwards, industrialization fundamentally changes the political, social, economic and communicative conditions. In the second half of the 19th century, the flourishing research led to significant technological changes. The construction of pass roads began. Mediation: under pressure from the opposition to the central state, Napoleon enacted the mediation constitution. The laws to replace the tithe burdens demand so much capital from the landowners that many have to sell their land and take a job in a factory, even if the 85-hour week often requires several hours of walking to work. At the same time, the tithe replacement favors the development of modern banks The age of electromagnetic telegraphy begins with the discovery of the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted: A magnetic needle can be influenced by the electric current The liberal governments in particular are modernizing the road network The German physicists Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm Weber build the first telegraph system that can handle longer transmission distances The American Samuel Finley Breese Morse has attempts to patent the writing telegraph On May 24, 1844, Morse transmits the first telegram over the 50 km long telegraph line he built between Washington and Baltimore. Brötli-Bahn between Baden and Zurich on August 7th, the age of the railways in Switzerland begins. The railways can transport significantly higher weights than the road and in doing so triggers a new phase of industrialization: The development of the machine industry The winners of the Sonderbund War enforced the federal constitution, giving priority to federal over cantonal laws. Their main concerns are economic: freedom of movement, abolition of internal tariffs, uniform dimensions, weights and coins. In order to secure peace, they grant the underdogs with a council of states and a higher level of political weight liberalism: the federal government guarantees the cantonal constitutions on the basis of the federal constitution, which must be revisable and republican. The constitutional initiative is introduced. For Swiss citizens, freedom of law, freedom of establishment and freedom of worship (only for members of Christian denominations), freedom of the press, freedom of association and the right to petition are guaranteed. At the same time, the federal constitution enables federal laws to be passed. On December 24th, the federal law for the creation of electrical telegraphs comes into force. The German Philipp Reis builds the first telephone. 3/8

4 1876 American-born Scotsman Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone with a transmitter and receiver station. In 1878, the British engineer David Edward Hughes improved the use of telephones over long distances with the introduction of the microphone. The earpiece and mouthpiece are separated. On February 18, the federal government will issue general standards on the creation of. The state monopoly is also emerging for telephony. In Zurich, a private company opens Switzerland's first telephone network. At the end of the year, 144 people could afford the luxury of a telephone connection that was operational between 7 a.m. and 9 p.m. The Federal Council decided that the federal government should take over the construction and operation of telephone networks The British David Edward Hughes succeeded in the first wireless transmission using a radio transmitter, the later inventions like the radio telephone or the radio owe their name. 1886/88 The German physicist Heinrich Hertz discovers the secret of the electromagnetic wave Almon B. Strowger from Kansas City files a patent for his rotary dial for the automatic establishment of telephone connections. This makes connections easier and safer and cheaper than the manual control units operated by young women. The French physicist Edouard Branly develops the fritter or coherer, which can receive en and thus becomes a central element of wireless communication. On November 3rd, the first automatic The world's switchboard in La Porte, Indiana, operating on Russian physicist Alexander Stepanowitsch Popov invents the antenna. The Italian Guglielmo Marconi builds a device with which electromagnetic waves can be picked up, and with the wireless transmission of signals creates the conditions for wireless telegraphy, wireless telephony and the radio Marconi experiments with earthed transmitting and receiving antennas. The grounding of transmission interference The German physicist Carl Ferdinand Braun built a closed resonant circuit into the Marconi transmitter to solve the damping problem, thus improving the transmission of human voices and other sounds. The Serbian physicist Michael Pupin invents the induction coil, which amplifies and amplifies the sound signals from telephone lines thus significantly extending the transmission distance. On December 12th, Marconi succeeded in transmitting the first wireless messages across the Atlantic. 4/8

5 The Danish physicist Woldemar Poulsen invents the arc transmitter. For the first time, undamped high-frequency vibrations are generated and spoken words transmitted wirelessly. The first powered flight: Orville Wright's aircraft covers 37 meters in the air in 12 seconds. The first automatic switchboard in Europe is put into operation in Hildesheim (D). Both the German Reich and the Allies test aircraft in the war. Both sides allow the use of radio frequencies for military purposes only. 8 The Latest in 1919 The USA crosses the Atlantic in an airplane for the first time. Carrier-frequency telephony makes multiple telephony possible and making telephony socially acceptable. Those who can afford it no longer just use the phone to exchange information, but also for private enjoyment.In Pittsburgh, the first radio station in the USA starts broadcasting.The federal authorities approve experiments with radio broadcasts, thus ushering in the age of public broadcasting. A radio station is broadcasting for the first time A fixed radio program with music and information in Switzerland On April 20, Switzerland's first fully automatic telephone exchange will open in Geneva. Maurice Rambert is organizing Switzerland's first international radio exhibition in Geneva. At the same time he is actively involved in the founding of the UIR (World Broadcasting Association), which makes Geneva its headquarters.Discover VHF transmission (ultra-short wave), which is quite insensitive to atmospheric disturbances compared to long, medium and short waves. VHF has only been used in broadcasting since the 1960s. The 900 existing local networks are divided into 52 network groups, which enables the automation of long-distance telephone traffic. For the first time, telephone calls can be dialed by yourself The SRG sporadically uses the shortwave station Radio Nation, which the League of Nations operates from Prangins, for example on August 1 for broadcasting programs abroad Second World War: Not only the warring nations, but also neutral Switzerland are concentrating their efforts on war economy and armaments . Mobility and communication are severely restricted. Beginning of the post-war period: Historically unique economic boom. Energy and land consumption, waste production, use of auxiliary materials, traffic reach a gigantic 5/8

6 growth rates. Markets are becoming internationalized, and the importance of the local economy for self-sufficiency is reaching the lowest level ever. The development and market introduction of new technologies is booming. The broadband or coaxial cable allows the simultaneous transmission of 600 calls. In 1973, FM transmitters (ultra-short waves) provide 99.5 percent coverage of the network. They offer good transmission quality, but have a short range. An ideal starting point for local radio stations The Soviet Union puts the first earth satellite into orbit Mobile phone calls are possible, but the devices are large, heavy and difficult to use. Thanks to the ongoing technical improvement in ultra-short wave transmission, cell phones are getting smaller and reception options are better. Switzerland is doing without a mobile network for the time being Switzerland is doing pioneering work. It is the first country in the world to automatically handle all domestic telephone traffic with over a million participants. The broadcast of stereo programs on VHF begins in the 1960s. The Soviet Union presents the first supersonic aircraft, the Tupolev from the merger of telecommunications and computer science creates the World Wide Web. How often does the development of sophisticated transmission systems serve national defense? The US Department of Defense has set itself the goal of designing a system in which information has various options to find its way to its destination. The web software enables information to be displayed in multimedia and linked to links. On July 20, the commander of the American Apollo 11 space probe, Neil Armstrong, is the first person to step on the moon. The GPS (Global Positioning System) program is started. The satellite-based navigation system provides precise information about the current location worldwide. In Leuk, a satellite ground station is being set up to handle overseas telephone traffic. The fax, which transmits documents, graphics and images true to the original via the telephone network, supplements the telephone. The first GPS satellite is installed in the Sent from space With NATEL A (National Car Telephone), mobile communications are introduced in Switzerland. NATEL is a registered trademark of Swisscom AG International self-dialing is possible from Switzerland to 86 countries on all five continents All households in Switzerland have a telephone With the construction of Europe's most powerful VHF transmitter on Pizzo Groppero, Roger Schawinski brings his first illegal private Radio 24 for the greater Zurich area, the state monopoly in the radio area is down. 6/8

7 1982 The term Internet appears for the first time. Music, television and video can be broadcast over the network. Voice over IP technology (VoIP) offers enormous savings and process optimization potential and ensures an increase in flexibility and productivity. Since encryption is still in its infancy, internet telephony is moderately secure due to spam over internet telephony and uninvited listeners. Liberalization of telecommunications in Switzerland. The PTT is divided into Swisscom and Post, competitors are approved for various functions. First fiber optic cables are laid in Switzerland NATEL C, introduced in 1986, leads to a strong increase in mobile communications in Switzerland. Mobile communications, with digital NATEL D, are establishing themselves as a network on par with the fixed network. The GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) initially allows a speed of 2,400 bps, today 9,600 bps to WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) is introduced. This standard regulates the wireless data transmission up to a maximum of 54 Mbit / s on the 2.4 or 5 GHz band. The high data rate allows the use of WLAN for networks. WLAN is suitable for connecting mobile devices to the Internet in heavily frequented locations such as airports, train stations or motorway service stations. If you use WLAN, you should definitely pay enough attention to encryption so that the data remains hidden from strangers. On February 17th, SRG SSR idée suisse grants the license to set up a DAB network in Switzerland.Digital audio broadcasting is a method for the interference-free digital transmission of radio programs and is likely to replace VHF radio in the next few years. The cable connection and satellite dish are replaced by a DAB receiver, which is mostly portable and can also receive FM programs. The telegram service is being discontinued in Switzerland because the telephone, SMS services and the Internet have made this medium superfluous Inaccuracy (SA, Selective Availability) switched off for all satellites in the range of the GPS, which had been introduced for military reasons in order to exclude unauthorized users, for example military opponents, from an exact position determination. This leads to the boom in navigation systems in vehicles and outdoors. Measurement errors are now less than 10 m in at least 90% of the measurements. On October 2nd, Swissair aircraft remain on the ground due to economic problems. The ambitious plans to go it alone have failed. Despite public funding, the successor airline Swiss is not held independently and taken over by the German Lufthansa in March 2005 The WSIS (World Summit on the Information Society) UN World Summit for the Information Society has been held every two years since 2003 In the field of GPS, in September In space, the antenna was improved and the transmission spectrum was expanded to include a second civilian frequency and two new military signals. 31 satellites are currently active (as of December 2006). 7/8

8 2005 The second WSIS in Tunis in November 2005 is overshadowed by the discussion on freedom of expression on the internet. The speech of the Swiss Federal President Samuel Schmid is censored on this topic by Tunisian television Skype, the free, proprietary VoIP software, is compatible with the common operating systems and enables free internet calls from PC to PC as well as paid calls to fixed and fixed-line telephones Cellular network (SkypeOut). Conference calls for up to ten people are possible. In July, Radio Sunshine will start the first field test with HD radio (high definition) in Europe. Digital technology promises better quality and higher capacity for FM radio and can be supplemented with additional programs and data. In order to be able to use the new technology, appropriate receiving devices are required, which are currently still expensive. Swiss private radio stations could start broadcasting between 2008 and 2010. 8/8