Who killed Chandravanshi King Jarasandha

Krishna - Krishna

Main deity in Hinduism
Member of Dashavatar
Devanagari कृष्ण
Sanskrit transliteration Kṛṣṇa
Affiliation Svayam Bhagavan, Brahman (Krishnaism-Vaishnavism),
Avatar of Vishnu, Dashavatara,
Radha Krishna
stay Goloka, Vaikuntha, Vrindavan, Gokula, Dwarka
weapon Sudarshana Chakra
Fights Kurukshetra war
Texts Bhagavata Purana , Harivamsa , Vishnu Purana , Mahabharata ( Bhagavad Gita ), Brahma Vaivarta Purana
Festivals Krishna Janmashtami, Holi, Gopastami, Govardhan Puja, Kartik Purnima, Sharad Purnima
Personal information
Consorts Radha, Rukmini, Jambavati, Satyabhama, Kalindi, Nagnajiti, Mitravinda, Lakshmana, Bhadra and 16,000-16,100 junior queens
children Pradyumna, Samba, Bhanu and various other children
dynasty Yaduvanshi - Chandravanshi

Krishna (/ kr ɪ ʃ n ə /, Sanskrit pronunciation: [kr̩ʂɳɐ] (listen) ; Sanskrit: कृष्ण, IAST: Kṛṣṇa ) is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshiped as the eighth avatar of Vishnu and also as the supreme god in his own right. He is the god of protection, compassion, tenderness and love and one of the most popular and revered Indian deities. Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus in Krishna Janmashtami according to the Hindu lunisolar calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar.

The anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are commonly called Krishna called Leela . He is a central figure in Mahabharata , in the Bhagavata Purana , in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana and in the Bhagavad Gita and is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical, theological and mythological texts. They portray him from different perspectives: a godchild, a joke, an exemplary lover, a divine hero and as the universal supreme being. His iconography reflects these legends and shows him at different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a boy playing the flute, a boy with Radha or surrounded by female followers, or a friendly charioteer advising Arjuna.

The name and synonyms of Krishna were derived from literature and cults from the 1st millennium BC. Chr. Returned. In some sub-traditions, Krishna is called Svayam Bhagavan (Supreme God) revered and sometimes referred to as Krishnaism. These sub-traditions emerged in the context of the medieval bhakti movement. Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kuchipudi, Odissi, and Manipuri dance. He is a pan-Hindu god but is particularly venerated in some places, such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, Dwarka and Junagadh in Gujarat; the Jagannatha aspect in Odisha, Mayapur in West Bengal; in the form of Vithoba in Pandharpur, Maharashtra, Shrinathji in Nathdwara in Rajasthan, Udupi Krishna in Karnataka, Parthasarathy in Tamil Nadu and Guruvayoorappan in Guruvayoor in Kerala. Since the 1960s, Krishna worship has also spread to the western world and Africa, mainly due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Awareness (ISKCON).

Names and surnames

The name "Krishna" comes from the Sanskrit word Exit Kṛṣṇa which is primarily an adjective meaning "black", "dark", "dark blue" or "anything attractive". The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha and refers to the adjective "darkening". The name is sometimes interpreted as "everything attractive".

As the name of Vishnu, Krishna is the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama listed . Because of his name, Krishna is often depicted in idols as having black or blue skins. Krishna is also known by various other names, surnames, and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Some of the most common names include Mohan "Enchanter"; Govinda " Chief shepherd ", Keev "Kidding" and Gopala "Protector of the" Go "" which means "soul" or "the cows". Some names for Krishna have regional meanings; Jagannatha , found in the Puri Hindu Temple, is a popular incarnation in the state of Odisha and in nearby regions of eastern India.

Krishna can also be referred to as Vāsudeva-Krishna, Murlidhar and Chakradhar. The honorary title "Sri" (also spelled "Shri") is often used before the name Krishna.

Names in different states of India

Krishna is generally revered as:

  1. Kanhaiyya / Bankey Bihari / Thakurji : Uttar Pradesh
  2. Jagannath : Odisha
  3. Vithoba : Maharashtra
  4. Shrinathji : Rajasthan
  5. Guruvayoorappan : Kerala
  6. Dwarakadheesh / Ranchhod : Gujarat
  7. Parthasarathy : Tamil Nadu

Historical and literary sources

The tradition of Krishna seems to be an amalgamation of several independent deities of ancient India of which Vāsudeva can be attested earliest. Vāsudeva was a hero god of the Vrishnis tribe, who belonged to the Vrishni heroes, whose worship from the 5th to 6th centuries BC. In the writings of Pāṇini and from the 2nd century BC. Is confirmed in epigraphy with the Heliodorus column. At some point the Vrishnis tribe is believed to have merged with the Yadavas tribe, whose own hero god was named Krishna. Vāsudeva and Krishna merged into a single deity who was im Mahabharata appears , and they start in Mahabharata and in the Bhagavad Gita to identify with Vishnu. Around the 4th century AD, another tradition, the cult of Gopala-Krishna, the protector of cattle, was also incorporated into the Krishna tradition.

Early epigraphic sources

Coin Depiction (2nd Century BC)

Vāsudeva-Krishna, on a coin from Agathocles of Bactria, c. 180 BC This is "the earliest unambiguous image" of the deity.

Around 180 BC The Indo-Greek king Agathocles issued some coins with images of deities, which today are interpreted as being related to Vaisnava images in India. The deities shown on the coins appear to be Saṃkarṣaṇa - Balarama with attributes consisting of the Gada mace and the plow, and Vāsudeva Krishna with attributes of the Shankha (shell) and the Sudarshana chakra wheel. According to Bopearachchi, the headdress on the deity is a misrepresentation of a shaft with a half-moon umbrella (chattra).


Heliodorus column in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, erected around 120 BC. The inscription says that Heliodorus is a Is Bhagvatena , and a couplet in the inscription circumscribes a Sanskrit verse from the Mahabharata .

The Heliodorus column, a stone column with a Brahmi inscription, was discovered by archaeologists from the colonial era in Besnagar (Vidisha, central Indian state Madhya Pradesh). Based on internal evidence from the inscription, it was found between 125 and 100 BC. Dated and is now known after Heliodorus - an Indo-Greek who served as the ambassador of the Greek king Antialcidas to a regional Indian king, Kasiputra Bhagabhadra. The inscription on the Heliodorus pillar is a private religious dedication by Heliodorus to "Vāsudeva", an early deity and another name for Krishna in the Indian tradition. It is said that the pillar of " Bhagavata Heliodorus "was built and that it was a" Garuda Pillar "(both are Vishnu-Krishna-related terms). In addition, the inscription contains a Krishna-related verse from Chapter 11.7 of the Mahabharata which states that the path to immortality and heaven is right to live a life of three virtues: self-restraint ( damah ), Generosity ( cagah or tyaga ) and vigilance ( Apramada ). The Heliodorus Column was fully excavated by archaeologists in the 1960s. The efforts revealed the brick foundations of a much larger ancient elliptical temple complex with a sanctuary, Mandapas and seven additional pillars. The inscriptions on the Heliodorus column and temple are among the earliest known testimonies of Krishna Vasudeva devotion and Vaishnavism in ancient India.

Balarama and Krishna with their attributes in chilas. The Kharoshthi inscription nearby reads Rama [kri] ṣa . 1st century AD

The Heliodorus inscription is not an isolated case. The Hathibada Ghosundi inscriptions, all located in the state of Rajasthan and by modern methodology dated to the 1st century BCE, mention Saṃkarṣaṇa and Vāsudeva, also mention that the structure was erected for their worship in association with the supreme deity Narayana. These four inscriptions are some of the oldest known Sanskrit inscriptions.

A mora stone slab found at the Mathura-Vrindavan archaeological site in Uttar Pradesh and now in the Mathura Museum bears a Brahmi inscription. It dates from the 1st century AD. And mentions the five Vrishni heroes, also known as Saṃkarṣaṇa, Vāsudeva, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and Samba.

The inscription for Vāsudeva begins in the 2nd century BC. With the coinage of Agathocles and the Heliodorus column, but the name Krishna appears a little later in epigraphy. At the archaeological site of Chilas II from the first half of the 1st century AD in northwestern Pakistan near the Afghan border, two men are engraved with many Buddhist images nearby. The taller of the two men holds a plow and a club in both of his hands. The artwork also contains an inscription in Kharosthi script, considered by scholars Rama-Krsna deciphered and interpreted as an old representation of the two brothers Balarama and Krishna.

The first known depiction of the life of Krishna himself comes relatively late with a relief that was found in Mathura and dates from the 1-2. Is dated century AD. This fragment appears to show Vasudeva, Krishna's father, carrying baby Krishna in a basket across the Yamuna. The relief shows at one end a naga with seven hoods crossing a river where a Makara Crocodile whirls around, and at the other end a person who appears to be holding a basket over his head.

Literary sources


The earliest text that contains detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic one Mahabharata representing Krishna as the incarnation of Vishnu. Krishna plays a central role in many of the main stories of the epic. The eighteen chapters of the sixth book ( Bhishma Parva ) of the epic from which the Bhagavad Gita consists contain the advice of Krishna to Arjuna on the battlefield. The Harivamsa , a later appendix to the Mahabharata, contains a detailed version of Krishna's childhood and adolescence.

Other sources

Krishna is celebrated in the Vaishnava tradition in different phases of his life, such as Maakhan choir (