What is meant by a payment aggregator
What is garbage - what does it mean, word, term, definition, slang
Yes, it's full of rubbish. Tresho. Truisk. These expressions are not uncommon in modern communication among young people.
What is garbage - worth, defining simple words.
Essentially the word "garbage" ( RUBBISH ) Translated from English as - trash can, trash or chaos.
Use of the word Tresh in speech:
The trick is called something bad or insane, and leaves the norms of the usual.
- It was a trustworthy party.
- The concert was just trash can.
- What happened, there was a litter.
The three is common to bring up some poor or obsolete unnecessary things.
- These are not clothes and rubbish.
- What rubbish on you
You can characterize your sad, lazy, frowning, frowning, mood, mood is both trees.
Today we say what payment systems are. It should be noted that this is a very broad definition. After all, the payment system can not only be called a company that provides the infrastructure for bank cards as a visa. But the same Qiwi payment system. What guarantees the exchange of e-currency in its infrastructure. And also offers its customers bank cards to use in stores and ATMs. There is a strange layering of several payment systems, banks and electronic infrastructure of payments. And all of this is only in a specific card in a bank. Today we're going to try to untie this Moudness Knot.
Let's start with the basic definitions. The payment system is called a whole aggregate:
- Technical solutions.
- Engineering infrastructure.
- Technical regulations.
This combination makes it possible to provide the possibility of transactional business between citizens, companies, bank accounts and all other participants. Payment systems are the key component of the entire monetary infrastructure.
The general meaning here is that payment systems offer an alternative to modern cash settlement. Real alternative in modern times will be difficult to call. Since payment systems are actually something, tomorrow will be the only way to use money. Because the existing legislation in most countries of the world has long been adapted to payment systems.
Of course, the radical consequences of this phenomenon are easy to predict. You can give an example for the United States, where the cash and calculation are perceived as something not right. Not just with morality, but also from a moral point of view. The general essence of such ideas is that an honest person is easier and more convenient to use cashless payment. And in case a person tries to follow something more expensive thing (even the camera) for cash, that is a cause for suspicion. Of course, this doesn't mean that everyone who pays cash for cash has to check in at the local police station. As far as not meant. But the essence here is that all cash is trying to take control.
This system works in Russia too. True, while cash is being used much more actively. And to still not be possible to a cash binding with a crime or a departure from taxes at the level of civil society. Business and cash today is not the best way to combine them.
And the disadvantages of payment systems are quite a few. In fact, a person does not, in fact, physically own their money. They are listed far away in the form of an e-currency. Nothing prevents you from simply taking and blocking a specific user. And leave it with no money, albeit at the time. However, the dominance of payment systems over the traditional turnover of cash has long been maintained. And there is no turning back. At least in the current realities.
To some extent, the cryptocurrency market can be viewed as an alternative. Yes, crypto currencies are not yet legalized anywhere. If they are legalized, it is not possible to name them as alternatives to monetary turnover. Because they transform into exactly the same payment systems that all provide the tools to control the state. Cash is not locked in in any way, it is practically uncontrollable and difficult to manage if we (as a state) want to:
- Check the legality of transactions.
- Collect all abandoned taxes with 95% payers.
- Perform pressure on the opposition, etc.
In this context, the payment systems become a kind of limited field for the turnover of finance that a person can leave very quickly. Or an entire state if we talk about international sanctions and other funny events. Of course, the payment systems have a large number of extensions and forms. After all, they use a completely physical toolkit:
- Electronic purses.
- Payment terminals
- Trading terminals, etc.
In some payment systems it is even possible to develop credit systems. Not at the bank level, but only in the context of the payment system. That's just in practice, lending is trying to disconnect from the payment system. For various reasons.
A multitude of payment systems in modern times can come as a surprise. Even if we consider the issue of national payment systems, in quantitative terms there will be more than 20-30 associated with a particular state. And how many electronic payment systems exist, even speaking in quantitative terms, is rather strange. Of course, some payment systems are becoming more popular than others and overlooking the international market. The most popular provides transactions in large and developed countries. Others work in certain regions, for example in Africa or Asia.
And if you understand all these subtleties, we'll start from the beginning. No, not from the history of money in the context of human development from ancient times. Rather, telecommunication systems for processing transactions between bank accounts.
Via the Swift Interbank system
Until recently, Russia did not have its own national payment system. Therefore, if necessary, and the successful accident due to political tension, the following can occur:
- Deactivate from SWIFT.
- Refusal to serve from the master card and visa.
All of these two events would have been enough to actually put the entire telecommunications structure in the Russian Federation on the blades. And these are all the developed networks of payment terminals, ATMs and much more. Of course, it's all from the realm of theoretical reasoning and fiction, but such a scenario in reality is quite possible.
Let's go back to the Contbank Swift system. It is necessary to delve into what this system is and why the separation can create additional problems.
So Swift is such a collaboration that was created in the early 1970s on the territory of Belgium. This is an acronym that reveals international and interbank communication channels as a company.
Swift is a system that allows banks to share information and transactions internationally. Initially, 19 states and 250 bank accounts from various points around the world took part in the system. Of course, they were the founders. Then all banking organizations start with this system. In fact, today this system includes more than two thousand different companies, more than 12,000 financial organizations, on the list of its members. All infrastructure reporting has already exceeded 200 countries.
All subscribers are addressed on special codes. The basic code is BIC. It is regulated by a separate international standard. In addition, several add-ons work in the system in the form of additional identifiers. We are not going to disassemble all of them, but the essence is clear. For example, in the territory of the European Union, you can use the identifier called Iban. This identifier already contains the BIC and defines a specific bank account for a specific recipient.
We are not going to disassemble the technical component today, we are limited to the general theory and history. The era of state influence over the payments interbank swift system began with terrorist attacks in the United States when the terrorists hijacked planes and crashed them into various buildings. Including the World Trade Center.
This is what happened, officials from the United States Department of Finance, the FBI and the CIA asked for access to these terrorists in this system. Thus began the era of the prosecution of possible financial transactions of terrorist organizations and their individual members.
Of course, the US is not Russia. The fact that the state has already started to be aware of financial flows only after 5 years. And there was a stormy scandal with crushing criticism of Swift.
Then entire states are deactivated by this system, this is North Korea and Iran. Of course, all of this is due to pressure from the US authorities. By the way, there are similar promises to our address (RF). That is why we started to create our own national payment system. In the case of the fact that if we are still apart, it will not lead to a complete collapse within the country.
This is the question of who controls payment systems. Technically pure, they shouldn't be under anyone or control. In practice, however, the pressure appears to be off, the interests are lobbying and the results are not the most joyful. Especially for those who are losing. At the moment Russia has its own and alternative infrastructure for Swift. This is SPFS. This system is necessary when we are disconnected from the international infrastructure.
Its interbank system was launched in China. Justice for, it's worth the fact that the international payments system in China sifted everything pretty well. Your union payment serves all of China and competes with the master card and visa in the international area.
A separate payment system was also set up in the European Union.
The irony is just that the EU has started building interbank infrastructure to trade with Iran. Avoid American sanctions. More than further adds a political context etc. to the question of the question of international payment systems, interbank architecture etc. In this one with the interbank swift system we will finish and deal with what we have on our own payment system. And find out how it works.
What is NPC?
Let's start with the hierarchy. So NPC is a clearing center in a large structure. The name of this structure: National Payment System "Peace". What is "the world" that you probably already know, so we are not going to go into that very heavily in this topic now. But about NPCs need to talk separately. So first the national payment system (as a concept) was required to provide an alternative for international MPs. And the context of it tried to offer us as an argument for adopting Law 88 Fz. The only problem is that laws are accepted according to the following system:
- The public is convinced of something.
- The law itself regulates completely different mechanisms and sets a very negative trend.
The focus of 88 Fz is assessed that all electronic payments must be derived from the hue. The national payment system itself is a number of different parties translating cash. Thus, the creation of a national payment system enables the status to control funds transfer funds transfers.
The NPS itself is made up of various payment agents, operators, organizations, etc. The organizational structure does not exist as it is quite complex to understand. Yes, and an ordinary citizen can hardly come across this information in practice. The general meaning here is that before the money could appear from an unknown direction. And leave in the same unknown direction. Everything is transparent now.
It has long been legislation that restricts any operations that do not meet the requirement. And if you want some extended rights, you have even more restrictions. Regulated by the NPCC and the national payment system for a broad regulatory framework:
- 161 vehicles
- Government Decision 584.
- Regulatory documentation of the Bank of the Russian Federation.
- Selected rules, decisions and instructions.
And there are a lot of standards, additional federal laws, etc. We won't understand all of these strains as the publication is under review.
The structure of the national payment system is the following hierarchy:
- Manages the Bank of Russia.
- The operators are subject to the bank.
Multiple operators. This transfers funds, payment infrastructure services and payment systems. Through operators, the Bank of Russia manages every payment system. The operators, in turn, have special agents. And there are also documents. The whole system is quite ramified and creates its additional problems.
Let's dwell on the essence. NPCC is the structure, the national payment system "peace". And they are only given tickets. Card world you have probably already seen, they are accepted in ordinary ATMs. That's only in Russia. In other countries, the terminals of receiving these cards are practically no. 2 years ago the volume of payments by the world was 17%. That a rather modest result and there is a reason.
By the way, already 6 years ago, all transactions within the Russian Federation were carried out through the world's payment system. More precisely by its operator, called NSPK. This is the essence of the work of the national payment card system. Even if you use VISA's cards, your transactions will still be processed at the NSPK level.
In addition, we have not limited ourselves to national payment systems. And they started translating the world to the payment system:
There is a significant chance that all other categories of citizens will gradually migrate to the cards of this national payment system. So far, it's just completely clear how he can cause slight drag. Everyone is well aware of what will lead to the monopoly of the entire market within the Russian Federation.
The payment system itself has very limited possibilities for the household level. In Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkey, for example, this payment system is only maintained by individual banking organizations. And no more.
But there are mutual agreements in Vietnam, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia. And only at the household level, you can use world maps only in South Ossetia, Abkhazia and Russia. Agree, it can't even seriously be able to perceive. The purpose of lawmakers is understandable, but the implementation of these goals is a separate and debated topic. Because the quality of execution is much to be desired.
And of course the range of restrictions on the maps of the world is very extensive. You cannot use foreign service and online shops with these cards at all. Even faithful (partial) WebMoney system refused to put the world map at home. Despite the fact that rubles have nonetheless put wallets in a separate cluster, they actually leave them open to tax service.
In this regard, with the national payment system, the world and the end. And we turn to international payment systems. You have already had time to familiarize yourself with our publication on international payment systems, so we do not delve deeply into this topic now.
On international pay systems
The old international payment system can therefore be viewed as Diners Club. Incidentally, they actually put the concept of the card as a payment instrument and the wallet at the same time. But we will not stop each other. The most popular payment systems are currently:
- Master card.
- Union Pay.
And here we will focus separately. In order to consider a.Express in the context of international payment systems, we will not do so. Like the national payment system, the world. But the Asian MP has to take into account, however, as they grow out of national growth, but over time began to go to the international market. Yes, it turned out that there are banks in the Russian Federation that have Union Pay.
Let's start with not the most popular international payment system in Russia. This is JCB. There are only 3 banks on the territory of the Russian Federation that can release a card of this payment system. JCB itself appeared in Japan. And is the national payment system of Japan. This MP appeared back in 1960.And right now it is one of the largest in Asia, if not considering the union pay. In fact, JCB does not serve most developed countries. However, you have contracts with Austria and Germany.
In addition, it was through JCB that world owners were given the opportunity to pay for goods and services in another country. The only problem is that the average citizen is not very accessible to these "privileges". And find an ATM that has a 100 percent chance that JCB will take in the countries of Eastern and Western Europe. Such cards are more suitable for Asian countries than European. However, in Bulgaria and Spain there are also terminals that can work with the cards of this payment system.
At the moment, permanent cardholders of this payment system are at least 30 million people. These are two year data. In fact, the usual JCB cards are available and a private citizen of the Russian Federation. Everything is more complicated with cobejigging, but let's talk about that next time.
The following in the size of the Asian region is Union Pay. The Chinese national payment system is the largest in this region. In Russia, the union Payi cards were issued for some time, but today it is very problematic today. Especially when we talk about card winding of this payment system. De facto, to replenish the traditional ways that such cards don't work. Because it is a violation of the legislative requirements in the Russian Federation.
Of course, the Union Pay system is the only payment aggregator in China. Because of this, a country like China is simply closed to everyone else. And I have to say that it is the Chinese isolation strategy, which is through the national payment system, which has received the most understandable and successful implementation. In Russia, while there is a completely different situation, and at least we have parted with MPs through the NPS world at least, it is still very early to talk about complete monopoly. It would be great not to talk about it at all, but the realities of external political relations are forced to do so.
Well, as we have said repeatedly about Visa and Master Card, just look at them as part of an interesting question. Namely: How does the visa differ from the Mastercard? Visually, the man in the street believes that this is the same payment system. After all, even their logos are almost identical. But there is still a small difference.
The first difference between these payment systems is that they have a different territorial origin. For example, Visa appeared in the United States. Then the master card appeared in Europe. In addition, in the first phase of the formation of these payment systems, they even enjoyed the currencies. In fact, the visa only uses conversion to US dollars. While the card master applies the euro. At least at some point they used the euro. The conversion into euros is only relevant today in connection with transactions within the European Union. And the same US dollar is used beyond that.
In fact, either of these can make an easy conclusion for the traveler. If you go to the USA, of course, use a visa. And if you want to go to the countries of the European Union, it is more appropriate to use Master Card.
From a technical point of view, these two payment systems also have their differences. For example, the return payments that they are not processed by one, but on two different tables. Despite the fact that the concept itself Code = Base is used in both payment systems, there are still differences. For example, the master card has long declined to serve chargeback requests for the transactions related to investing and speculative trading in markets. Of course, this restriction can be accessed today, but in the visa the relationship is easier than in the master card.
Thereupon it is with a review of the major payment systems related to the Russian Federation, for the time being and finalized. It would be possible to talk about such specific payment systems as Cirrus, but an overview of all such solutions and associations takes at least 2 publications, and an ordinary person is not required for an ordinary person. Especially in the context of the fact that most payment systems are simply not presented in the Russian Federation. Isolation, a mesh foreign policy situation and other peripetics.
And now briefly about how the payment system interacts with banks. The subject is pretty easy to understand, and we have already dismantled this problem several times. Let us try again.
How are payments made through the payment system?
We have already learned whether it is possible to challenge the transfer of money through the payment system. Yes, the refund of transactions at the MPS level is allowed. There is a separate regulation that regulates this procedure. Everything is more complicated with the NPS as it is technically clean, no one is required to give money back. You can just turn off the ability to return transactions, and there is nothing you can do. Such a situation is taking place in Russia, but on a very limited basis. As far as delving into this, we will not do this.
So when one person translates the money transfer to another, it is usually limited to interbank interaction. The payment system is part of the chain and is very mediocre as banks may have set up between them. Bypass payment system. Therefore, the process of transferring funds with the participation of MPs is the easiest to consider on the interaction example:
You want to pay for something with your bank card. Most likely, the issuer is a banking organization, and the battery is completely different. However, given the monopoly of Sberbank in all directions, the Issuer and Accuar can be the same bank. When you pay for a memory card in the terminal of the same bank. We will not consider this interaction scheme as it is short enough.
Suppose the battery and the issuer are 2 different organizations. Equiler in this interaction scheme is a banking organization that serves the seller, i.e. H. A concrete store. And the issuer is a banking organization that serves the buyer's card. You apply a bank card to the POS terminal, which starts the following script:
- The terminal sends a request to the Equille.
- He in turn asks the payment system.
- The payment system sends a request to the issuer.
- The issuer has already written out the money on the card.
If there are no funds on the card, the issuer will issue another message, which will be interpreted by the payment system, and will be sent to the terminal as a notification. By the way, at the time of applying the card, an additional verification procedure is carried out. When asked how to check the legality of payments. To ensure this procedure, the payment systems began to enter standards to install a chip on the card. In Russia, cards without a chip are not produced for a long time, as this contradicts a separate federal law.
In addition, a complex interaction scheme is organized between the payment system, the accumulator and the issuer. All levels use special encryption and codification. In addition, completely dissimilar technologies and encryption algorithms are used in various steps of the exchange of information between the accumulator and the issuer via the payment system.
For example, the primary requirement from the equiler terminal to the issuer involves the use of a technology. The response from the issuer to the equiler terminal is based on a completely different scenario. All of this is also processed by the payment system, which essentially organizes space for the sharing of transactions.
Of course, it is if you don't complicate the whole scheme of interaction. And it has to be complicated, as it is purely technical, even a simple cash dispensing through an ATM already consists of 25 operations that there will generally be no people. Multilayer encryption, interpretation, working with the answers, to understand the whole mechanism, you need close technical specialization. In addition, we have already considered the problem of the work of ATMs and payment systems in previous publications. Hence, during this and the finish. And we will bypass what is also mentioned in the surprise as payment systems. These are electronic payment systems as you can guess. And there are a lot of them.
Until recently, this payment system was one of the most popular on the territory of the Russian Federation. This system reappeared in 2002, they even produced their own cards:
- Appreciated by Tinkoff Bank.
- Appreciated by their own organization.
At first, Yandex money only became possible because the well-known corporations signed an agreement with one of the providers called Pay Cash. It was a golden era in the development of this payment system.
Working on the stage of the formation of Yandex money, everything worked only through a special application. And only in 2005 does the first web version of the payment system appear. After that, the Yandex money begins to attract a large audience. And after 2 years, Yandex's stake will be acquired by Pay Cash. At the time of 2007, Yandex was privatizing this payment system for itself.
Problems started with the introduction of the unfortunate 161 federal law. He began to lay down the requirements and rules of work for payment systems. From now on, Sberbank comes out in the arena, which will gradually buy the Yandex money service. However, the final control at Sberbank at the time of 2012 has not yet been carried out. 75% of the general capital was redeemed. And the representatives of Yandex remained a blocking package. And precisely because Yandex remained a blocking package, the payment system continued to become popular with the audience.
However, as early as 2017, the general director of the management company Yandex will be one of the representatives of the Bank of the Russian Standard. And only in 2020, something that no one expected, happened. Sberbank will completely absorb the Yandex money service, in fact destroy the previous payment system. Because they'll change the name to Yu-Mani almost immediately. After that, the central bank will block for January 12, 2021, although the service's totalitarian policy in relation to its users continues to block this service. Blocking lasts at least 6 months. At the moment, payments and receipts from companies that are not residents of the Russian Federation are limited. Which de facto reflects the full isolation of the payment system. Reviews about this payment system are also not the most joyful, you can read on the network.
WebMoney payment system.
One of the oldest payment systems that pushed back in 1998. And I have to say that this is a unique payment system. Because we cannot observe such a level of complexity even in exceptionally foreign payment systems. Webmoney literally has it all:
- System of certificates (license).
- Loan system (separate service).
- Credit system (stock exchange), etc.
Of course, the demand for this system is no longer as high as it was before. And at the same time, WebMoney will definitely remain one of the largest payment systems for the next 5-10 years.
By the way, in the territory of the Russian Federation it is not a payment system. And at the same time there is a certain control of the authorities over the wallets of the users. In fact, VMR wallets were just created to limit users with ruble accounts. And today only these wallets have undergone such significant permutations.
Because legalization was won with the example with WME (Euro) in 2015. In this regard, WebMoney was fully legalized with euro accounts on the territory of the European Union. The company itself can delay the maintenance of the customer account for various reasons. They are not disclosed, but as a rule, such forced locks, as is not observed in Russian payment systems, are made. Yes, the rejection of the service can be due to different reasons (e.g. non-return of loan funds).
The payment system itself works through a branching system of guarantees in the form of bank details. In addition, they have equivalent crypto circle and even precious metals. The protection system itself is one of the most advanced and complex. Just for the reason that security has paid a lot on itself at the moment when other payment systems haven't even thought about it.
Via the Qiwi payment system
This EPS was initially based on:
- Cellular Terminals.
- Cellular Operator Infrastructure.
Yes, at first the EPS Kiwi was a simplified analogue of the usual payment system. Where the phone number was issued as an account. Then this EPS is transferred to your own bank. Today, based on the banking organization of the same name, Qiwi is a full-fledged electronic payment system.
In general, restrictions in this EPC are roughly the same as in other Russian EPS. Relatively recently, the central bank initiated these EPAs, and now it is limiting the ability to work with foreign companies. This means that you cannot pay bills in foreign companies. And any receipt can lead to the standard Hallet lock. How money from KIWI is displayed, and how much you need to do to recover the account, we won't even talk. This is a separate topic for conversation.
On international EPS.
The most popular in Russia is:
- PAY PAL.
At least before the introduction of totalitarian financial constraints, they enjoyed high demand. But today they practically do not work on the territory of the Russian Federation.
For example, Pay PAL simply refused to work on the internal area of transactions in the Russian Federation under the current conditions. It happened in the middle of 2020. And exactly from the moment users from the Russian Federation, in fact, this payment system is not available. Now this payment system can only be used for one task. This sends users cash to other countries. But with this, as you understand, not everything is as simple as it may seem at first. After all, restrictions can be not only at the level of the payment system, but also from the bank.
Skrill British payment system that worked with the citizens of the Russian Federation up to a point. However, they stopped producing cards for citizens of the Russian Federation for a very long time. At the moment they are still registering Russian-speaking users, but it sure won't work for a bank card in Russia.
Today we discussed with which payment systems. Understood the provisions of their work and their varieties. Indeed, no purchase is no longer a purchase. Except if you pay in cash. Everything that is connected to bank cards and accounts, one or another, is connected to the payment systems. National, international. Or even electronically.
Important! For any questions when you don't know what to do and where to contact:
Free Hot Law Line.
What is tresh and what is slang in youth?
January 19, 2021.
Hello, dear blog readers ktonanovenkogo.ru. Youth slang (what is
One of the difficult words for word perception is garbage because it has quite a lot of values. I will try to tell simple words that it is called and in what cases it can be applied.
Garbage - what does it mean in a youth hostel
Translated from English rubbish (rubbish) Indicates rubbish or something of poor quality. The word enjoyed much popularity in zero years but is now much less frequently used.
First of all, it should describe something at all. Bad or poor quality.
Under this word, youth implies a dozen notation:
- For example, a garbage party is a disgusting organization in terms of organizing an event that was extremely boring, or, on the contrary, where too many people, alcohol, take on a lot of fun.
- But the expression "that's tough!" Indicates an extraordinary surprise, the misunderstanding of what is happening, what is happening.
However, it can generally be assumed that trach is somewhat uncharacteristic of a given situation (which is not relevant now)
The slang word is most commonly used in the following values:
- Tresh music;
- Garbage film;
- Tresh Tattoo;
- Trash clothes.
What is trash films?
Some directors try to get a quick impact on their work by removing horror films with a straightforward scenario. If, for example, the victim still can't escape the bloodthirsty villain, and finally stupid about something stupid, and the killer is happy to shine from all the heroes of the film.
The frankly low quality of such creations allows you to use the garbage slang word to describe them, i.e. the garbage. The most conspicuous representative of the genre is "cross-blood freaks".
Summarizing the foregoing Tresh films indicate the following:
- A low budget movie shot on an ambulance hand with an honestly unsuccessful lot;
- The genre that is characterized by excessive cruelty and abundance of blood.
The low quality cinema quickly comes to the audience, they show that they show at least every interest in such a picture. The situation is saved by a constant influx of new viewers unfamiliar with the genre, but they quickly come to monotony and insight into the plot.
What's a garbage in music?
The slang word is also actively used in music. And here it can be used in two values, as indicates different words in English.
Thus, the term Tresh means the following:
- Also bad music that it is impossible to hear because it uplifts the brain. In this case, the English word garbage was borrowed - garbage.
- Direction in rock metal. To give this genre a name, the word beating was used. - Beat, TRESH. Garbage music began to gain momentum in the 1980s, for them the fast rhythm of drums and guitars, aggressive and expressive execution options, often obscene expressions in the lyrics.
Trash Polka Tatu - what does
Trash-Polka is a trend in tattoo culture, founded by the Germans from the city of Würzburg in the late 1990s.
The main feature of tattoos in such a style is that with the help of them, newspaper or magazine, illustrations, photos, collages are reproduced on the human body.
The name of the Tresh-Polka is formed from the English word trash can - garbage, garbage, as well as the popular dance in Europe.
For the direction of Tresh-Polka, the use of black and red colors is characterized, the volumetric images are unreasonable days of the week of life, that is, there are no hares, flowerfish and owls.
Tattoos are very popular for the size of the entire hand, shoulder, or chest, although small images are often applied to fragile girls.
Tresp clothing is fashionable or not
Speaking simple words, the garbage clothing indicates tasteless and poor quality products.
Such a style can also cover outfits from the past according to the fashion of the XX century in the period from the 1930s to the 1990s. The main rule of garbage in this direction is their complete absence: you can absolutely wear everything, without exception.
That's all, dear friends. Now you know what a garbage is, and in what values this word is used.
I wish you success! View quick meetings on the pages of ktonanovenkogo.ru
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