Can someone really become an American?

Did the moon landing really exist?

No American has ever been to the moon. Everything just fake.

The moon landings? Productions in some television studios that were also poorly or incorrectly lit.

And then there were also such amateurish mistakes as the waving US flag. Pfffff. As if flags were flying on the moon. Without atmosphere. Fake. A political conspiracy by the Americans to show the Soviets: Look, we can do it, not you.

Our men can land on the moon, but you can't. Space Race, Cold War. Such methods are needed.

Earthquake machines and lizard people

While we're at it. In the wilderness of Alaska there is said to be a mysterious research facility that can trigger earthquakes. It's called HAARP and is also capable of various weather manipulations in order to terrorize the world. Enter HAARP and earthquake on Google and be amazed at the number of hits.

Another story like that? Here you go: chemtrails. These are the white streaks in the sky that are sold to us as harmless contrails. In reality, however, planes spray chemicals on behalf of evil governments to change the weather and climate and to poison us humans.

And anyway - the earth is flat and hollow inside.

And it is actually ruled by lizard men.

More: 50 years ago: This is how manned space travel began

We all love conspiracy theories

Are you laughing now? Or is your pulse going up? Such nonsense at DW? Ok, then they are obviously not very prone to conspiracy theories. How many people believe in such absurd stories is not proven by numbers. Not even if there are more today, in 2019, than in the past.

In any case, crude conspiracy theories have become more visible through the internet and social media, say psychologists, their supporters feel vindicated and no longer feel they belong to a small minority.

But scientific experiments also show that conspiracy theorists like to believe the most absurd things in order to belong to a supposedly exclusive, elitist group of knowledge.

What the reasons are that there were and still are very many supporters of a moon landing lie would have to be scientifically investigated. The trigger was definitely a strange book by the American Bill Kaysing. It came out in 1976 and was clearly titled "We never went to the Moon".

It hit. Many people believed the absurd theses. Kaysing wasn't a scientist, technician, or engineer. He was an author, wrote about agriculture, cooking, tax saving. He knocked out supposed evidence that should prove that there should never have been moon landings.

Here are four of his most popular theses:

A cross brace gives the impression that the flag is blowing

1. The waving flag

Conspiracy theorists like this:

In the film footage, the US flag that Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin rammed into the lunar soil is blowing in the wind. But that cannot be because there is no atmosphere on the moon.

Science like this:

The flag did not flutter. It only moved when the two astronauts touched it and rammed it into the ground. On earth, the atmosphere quickly slows down such slight vibrations. On the other hand, on the moon - without an atmosphere - the vibrations are maintained for much longer. In addition, a cross brace was braced in the flag to give the impression that it was blowing.

2. No stars in the photos

Conspiracy theorists like this:

No stars can be seen on the moon images. So they were done in the studio.

Science like this:

It is correct that we have a fantastic view of a starry sky on the moon - without a disturbing atmosphere. But when the astronauts were on the moon, it was always daytime. One explanation is that the lunar surface, the lander and the astronauts were so strongly illuminated by the sun that the faint light from the stars went down.

3. Too perfect photos

Conspiracy theorists like this:

The Hasselblad cameras worn at chest height by the astronauts had no viewfinder. How did the astronauts get so many perfect photos with it?

Science like this:

Not all pictures were perfect. There are numerous blurry images that have ended up in the NASA archives, only the most beautiful have been published. In addition, the astronauts on Earth had time to familiarize themselves with the Hasselblad cameras and to practice with them. A special wide-angle lens made it easier to focus and allowed larger image sections.

More on this: Wernher von Braun - rocket designer in the service of the mighty

It's all a matter of perspective: the shadows of Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin are oblique

4. The shadows are sloping

Conspiracy theorists like this:

Some of the photos show shadows that are not parallel to each other. With the sun as the only source of light, however, all shadows would have to run parallel. But they don't, so spotlights must have been involved.

Science like this:

Parallelism is always a matter of perspective. Parallel lines on a three-dimensional surface always appear oblique when they are mapped two-dimensionally. Think about railroad tracks. They seem to converge towards the horizon, although they are always guaranteed to be parallel. This is true on earth and also on the moon.

Not enough?

There is some other supposed evidence of the moon landing deniers about dust, dangerous radiation or shadows. Our colleagues at Spektrum exposed them excellently. There is no definitive evidence of a lunar conspiracy. So the bottom line is: the moon landings took place, not even the Soviets questioned them at the time, and that meant something in the times of the Cold War. In addition, a total of around 400,000 people worked for the Apollo missions. So enough witnesses, one of whom would have leaked something at some point. Or what do you mean?

Here you can read the probability of a major conspiracy being discovered - the physicist David Grimes from Oxford University calculated it.

More about this: ARD contemporary witness: NASA always made everything public during Apollo 11

  • Conspiracy theories: when hypotheses become dogmatic

    Core document of anti-Semitism

    Twelve leaders of the Jewish people are said to have outlined their plans for a conspiracy to achieve world domination in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion". In fact, they are a fictional listing of the religious Russian writer, editor and anti-Semite Sergei Nilus from 1903 - and have become the core document of modern anti-Semitic conspiracy theories.

  • Conspiracy theories: when hypotheses become dogmatic

    Nazi ideology

    The idea of ​​a "conspiracy of world Jewry" with the aim of taking over world domination was also a central component of Nazi ideology. Obviously, they made extensive use of the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion" and spread the alleged revelations contained therein in their own propaganda leaflet "Der Stürmer".

  • Conspiracy theories: when hypotheses become dogmatic

    Coded negativity

    Anyone who believes in the barcode conspiracy uses a so-called anti-interference pen for self-protection. The theory says that the scan codes on packaging emit negative energies: with the aim of reducing the world's population. The anti-interference pen is supposed to neutralize the codes. On some products, the barcodes are crossed out as a precaution to reassure customers.

  • Conspiracy theories: when hypotheses become dogmatic

    Event needs explanation

    Political events just as much need a plausible explanation as social changes. This was also the case after the French Revolution in 1789, as a result of which conspiracy theorists targeted the Freemasons and Illuminati as rebels - their exclusive circles make it easy to develop corresponding hypotheses. Here you can see an order of the Minerval class of the Illuminati.

  • Conspiracy theories: when hypotheses become dogmatic

    Theories about terror

    Numerous theories have grown up around the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001: they were approved or even planned by the US government, Jews did not go to work in the World Trade Center that day, the twin towers were blown up in a controlled manner, insider trading . A testimony to that day can be seen here: a demolished elevator motor from one of the towers.

    Author: Torsten Landsberg