How did the Mughals go back


a mystical brotherhood, originated in Central Asia in the 14th century and widespread in the following centuries. She played an important role in islam. Reform efforts in the 17th and 18th centuries and is still one of the most important mystical communities in Islam. The founding figure, Bahāʾ ad-Dīn Naqshband (1318 - 1389) from Bukhara, is one of a number of famous Central Asian countries. "Masters" (Pers. Khwājagān), which dates back to the 12th century and from which other mystical communities arose. The "way of the masters" (Pers. Ṭarīqa-yi khwājagān), the Tajik. like turkmen. Attracting Muslims was an important element of social integration in Central Asia. Islam, especially under the rule of Tīmūr and his descendants (approx. 1370-1507) in Samarkand, Bukhara and Herat. The rise of the Naqshband's successors also fell during this period, and their community, which N., in the following centuries, partly ousted and partly absorbed the other groups. - The mystical practice of N. is based on the close emotional bond (arab. Rābiṭa) of the student to the master, whose image should be impressed on one's own heart in meditation. A strong internal relationship is maintained between the two even in their absence. The master represents the prophet and through him should anchor the presence of God deeper and deeper in the heart of the disciple. At the center of the way of life are eleven basic principles, eight of which go back to the «path of the masters». A silent dhikr is practiced, which is connected with conscious control of breath and thoughts and with regular account of one's own actions. The concentration on the remembrance of God should also permeate everyday life and ultimately lead to "loneliness in the crowd" and to the inner "journey in home". The inner life is accompanied by a meticulous alignment with the norms of the Sharia. With its tendency towards religious penetration of everyday life and a controlled lifestyle, the N. showed itself to be a cosmopolitan community that gained great political, economic and cultural influence in many areas. Among their most famous representatives were Khwāja ʿUbaid Allāh Aḥrār (d. 1490), who, with his numerous following and his extensive and well-organized religious foundations, was one of the most powerful men in the Timurid. Central Asia belonged, as well as ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān Jāmī (d. 1492), the most important Persian poet of his time. On the Indian subcontinent, the N. was able to settle under the rule of the timurid. Mughals also provide great influence. Here Aḥmad Sirhindī (d. 1624) founded his own community, which he called Islam. «Renewer» (arab. Mujaddid) of the second islam. Millennium and finally also in the holy places and in Osman. Rich found many followers. Since the 18th century this mujaddidīya has largely overlaid the other branches of the N. Their supporters were instrumental in the first efforts to reform the Osman. Richly involved in the early 19th century. - Today's affiliations of the N. in the Middle East largely belong to the Khālidīya. This goes back to Maulānā Khālid al-Baghdādī (d. 1827), a sheikh of the Mujaddidīya of Kurdish origin, who finally settled in Damascus. His students and successors made it the most popular brotherhood in Anatolia, Kurdistan and finally also in the Caucasus (Daghestan, Chechnya), where the imams of the jihad movement were closely linked to the Khālidīya in the fight against the Tsarist empire (1830-1859). - The N. still plays an important role in religious life in the Middle East, especially in Turkey, where, despite the official ban on brotherhoods, it is also publicly present with some renewed centers and movements and where prominent politicians such as Turgut Özal and Necmettin Erbakan maintained close relations with the Naqshbandī sheikh Mehmet Zahid Kotku (d. 1980). The educational movements of the Nurcu Cemaatı and the Süleymanci also have their roots in the N. In Syria, the Grand Mufti of the country, Aḥmad Kaftārū (1912-2004), was at the head of a separate branch of this brotherhood, with a large international educational center in Damascus. In Germany as in the USA there are especially supporters of the Cypriot. Sheikh Muhammad Nazim al-Qubrusi al-Haqqani (1922-2014) active. He left behind a larger circle of German converts to Islam who ran their own publishing house and published his writings in German translation. In the USA they are represented by their own foundation, the “Haqqani Foundation”, which has various branches, a publishing house and its own study center in Michigan. - In Uzbekistan the histor. After the end of the Soviet Union, N.'s legacy experienced a significant appreciation. Their ethics are officially recognized as a central element of national culture and as indigenous. Counterbalance to international islamist. Currents highlighted and propagated. The tomb of Bahāʾ ad-Dīn Naqshband near Bukhara has become a national monument; at the same time, it now serves as an international pilgrimage center for Naqshbandīs from all over the world.

Meier, F .: Two treatises on the Naqšbandiyya, Vol. 1: The heart bond to the master, Vol. 2: Strength and law of the saint, 1994. - Özdalga, E. (Ed.): Naqshbandis in Western and Central Asia. Change and Continuity, 1999. - Paul, J .: The political and social significance of the Naqsbandiyya in Central Asia in the 15th century, 1991. - Böttcher, A .: With turban and cell phone. Sheikh Nāẓim al-Qubrusī and his transnational Sufi network, 2011

Prof. Dr. Stefan Reichmuth, University of Bochum, Islamic Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.