Did your ancestors immigrate legally?

The Impact of Immigration on American Society

[1] Destitute immigrants were paid for the passage to America by ship, but they usually had to work for the American client for seven years in exchange for free food, clothing and lodging. (A.d.Ü.)

[2] See Pyong Gap Min (ed.), Mass Migration to the United States. Classical and Contemporary Periods, Walnut Creek (CA) 2002; Alejandro Portes and Ruben Rumbaut, Immigrant America: A Portrait, Berkeley 1996.

[3] See Campbell Gibson, "The Contribution of Immigration to the Growth and Ethnic Diversity of the American Population," in: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 136 (1992), 157-175, 165.

[4] See Barry Edmonston and Jeffrey Passell (eds.), Immigration and Ethnicity: The Integration of America¹s Newest Arrivals, Washington, D.C., 1994, 61.

[5] See Digby E. Baltzell, The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America, New York 1964.

[6] See John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925, First published 1950, New Brunswick 1988.

[7] Cf. Campbell Gibson e.a., “Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic Origin, 1790 to 1990, for the United States Regions, Divisions, and States”, in: Population Division Working Paper No. 56, Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C., 2002.

[8] See Donald H. Akenson, “Why the Accepted Estimates of the American People, 1790, Are Unacceptable”, in: William and Mary Quarterly, 41 (1984), pp. 102-119; Forrest McDonald and Ellen Shapiro McDonald, “The Ethnic Origins of the American People, 1790”, in: ibid., 37 (1980), pp. 179-199; Thomas L. Purvis, “The European Ancestry of the United States Population, 1790”, in: ibid., 41 (1984), pp. 85-101.

[9] See Thomas J. Archdeacon, Becoming American: An Ethnic History, New York 1983, p. 20.

[10] See Archdeacon, ibid., P. 81.

[11] See Roger Daniels, Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life, New York 1991, pp. 267f. The so-called “Know-Nothing-Movement” was a political movement primarily against Catholic immigrants who, according to the main allegation, were subservient to the Pope and the clergy, who through them exercised a subversive political influence on the Anglo-Saxon Protestant republic. The name comes from the initially secretive character of the movement, whose members were supposed to plead ignorance about its existence and goals (including limitation of immigration, granting of civil rights only after 21 years). Large parts of the movement soon became part of the Republican Party. (A.d.Ü.)

[12] Cf. Higham, op. Cit., Chap. 1.

[13] See William Bernard, “Immigration: History of U.S. Policy ”, in: Stephan Thernstrom (ed.), Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, Cambridge 1980, p. 492.

[14] See Higham, op. Cit., P. 103.

[15] See Amos Hawley, “Population Density and the City,” in: Demography, 9 (1972), p. 521.

[16] See Baltzell, op. Cit., P. 111.

[17] See Higham, op. Cit .; Madwyn Allen Jones, American immigration, 2nd ed., Chicago 1992, chap. 9.

[18] See David M. Reimers, Still the Golden Door: The Third World Comes to America, New York 1985, chap. 3.

[19] See Charles Keely, U.S. Immigration: A Policy Analysis, New York 1979.

[20] See Douglas S. Massey et al. Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican Immigration in the Era of Economic Integration, New York 2002.

[21] See Jennifer H. Lundquist, Douglas S. Massey, “The Contra War and Nicaraguan Migration to the United States”, in: Journal of Latin American Studies, 37 (2005), pp. 29-53.

[22] See U.S. Bureau of the Census 2005, The Foreign-Born Population of the United States Current Population Survey - March 2004, Detailed Tables (PPL-176), at: www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign/ppl-176.html (on July 25, 2006).

[23] Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations that Made the American People, 2nd ed., Boston 1973, p. 3.

[24] See Robert E. Gallman, "Human Capital in the First 80 Years of the Republic: How Much Did America Owe the Rest of the World," in: The American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 67 (Febr. 1977), p. 31.

[25] See Campbell Gibson e.a., Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 2000. Population Division Workpaper No. 81, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C., 2006.

[26] See Niles Carpenter, Immigrants and Their Children, Washington, D.C., 1927, p. 27.

[27] See Carpenter, ibid .; Hope T. Eldridge and Dorothy Swaine Thomas, Population Redistribution and Economic Growth, United States, 1870-1950, Philadelphia 1964, pp. 206-209.

[28] See Kristi Andersen, The Creation of a Democratic Majority, Chicago 1979, p. 67ff; Baltzell, supra, p. 230; Jerome M. Clubb and Howard W. Allen, “The Cities and the Election of 1928: Partisan Realignment?”, In: The American Historical Review, 74, pp. 1205-1220 (1969); Carl N. Degler, "American Political Parties and the Rise of the City: An Interpretation," in: The Journal of American History, 51 (1964), pp. 41-59; Samuel Lubell, The Future of American Politics, New York 1952, p. 28.

[29] See U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1960. Subject Reports. Nativity and Parentage. PC (2) -1A, Washington, D.C., 1965, p. 8.

[30] Richard F. Hamilton, Class and Politics in the United States, New York 1972, chap. 5.

[31] See Nancy Foner, From Ellis Island to JFK: New York's Two Great Waves of Immigration, New Haven 2000, p. 11; Jones, op. Cit., Pp. 192ff.

[32] See Paul Buhle, From the Lower East Side to Hollywood, London 2004; Neal Gabler, A realm of its own. How Jewish immigrants invented Hollywood, Berlin 2004; Andrea Most, Making Americans. Jews and the Broadway Musical, Cambridge 2004; Gene D. Phillips, Exiles in Hollywood: Major European Film Directors in America, Bethlehem (PA) 1998; Mark Winokur, American Laughter: Immigrants, Ethnicity, and 1930s Hollywood Film, New York 1996.

[33] See Charles Hirschman, “Immigration and the American Century,” in: Demography, 42 (2005), Table 4.

[34] See Most, op. Cit.

[35] See Baltzell, loc. Cit.

[36] See Philip Kasinitz, “Race, Assimilaton, and‘ Second Generation ’, Past and Present”, in: Nancy Foner and George Frederickson (eds.), Not Just Black and White: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives on Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States, New York 2004, p. 279.

[37] See Bernard, op. Cit., P. 492.

[38] See Jones, op. Cit., Pp. 228ff.

[39] See Bernard, op. Cit., Pp. 492f.

[40] See Richard Alba and Victor Nee, Remaking the American Mainstream: Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration, Cambridge 2003.

[41] See Stanley Lieberson, A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880, Berkeley 1980.

[42] See Charles Hirschman, “Immigration, Public Policy”, in: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes (eds.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 11, Oxford 2001, pp. 7221-7226.

[43] See U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2004, Washington, D.C., 2006.

[44] See Douglas S. Massey, “International Migration at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century: The Role of the State,” in: Population and Development Review, 25 (1999), pp. 303-323.

[45] See Massey et al. Beyond Smoke and Mirrors.

[46] See Massey et al. Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium, Oxford 1998.