Is INS 471 halal or not

Questions and Answers (FAQ)

Updated 11/13/2007

E-471 - mono- and diglycerides

? Question: Are E471 mono- and diglycerides Halal or Haram? Can mono- and diglycerides be made from pork fat or other haram fats?

!Answer: Edible fats are processed in the production of mono- and diglycerides (E471). The use of palm oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil is common. However, production from animal fats is also possible and Not forbidden. Since animal fats have recently fallen into disrepute and the costs for the production of mono- and diglycerides from animal fat are significantly higher than those based on plants, it can be assumed that vegetable raw materials are usually used. A ban on the use of animal fat for the production of mono- and diglycerides does not exist in German or EU food law. Legal reference: The European guideline 96/77 / EG laying down specific purity criteria for food additives other than colorings and sweeteners defines the corresponding criteria, partly also starting materials for the production of additives. No specific starting materials are specified for the mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids and therefore no prohibition on the use of animal raw materials. We therefore recommend that you always ask the manufacturer about the origin of the edible fats. Since recipes also change from time to time, we recommend asking the manufacturer whether the product is also offered halal-certified. Ethanol does not play a role in the production of mono- and diglycerides.

Mono- and diglycerides also occur naturally in small amounts in lard. This is why sometimes lard is used in baked goods
used. However, this must be labeled separately as an ingredient. The process with which the E 471 was manufactured cannot be traced on the packaging.

The derivatives of these additives are the mono- and diglyceric acid esters, which have the E numbers E 472 a-f. Here mono- and diglycerides are esterified with acetic acid (a), tartaric acid (b), citric acid (c), mono- or diacetyltartaric acid (d) or a mixture of acetic and tartaric acid (f).

We consider halal certification of mono- and diglycerides (E471) or products that contain this additive to be necessary.



Updated 11/23/2007

Is lactose halal?

The halal status of lactose must be questioned.

Lactose is the chemical name for milk sugar, one of the main components of milk. In addition to the solid cheese components, the cheese production also includes the liquid whey, in which the majority of the lactose remains dissolved. Lactose is obtained in crystalline form from the whey in subsequent physical processes. In principle, two methods can be used to produce the whey first. One of these two procedures must be questioned with regard to Halal conformity:

1. Process: acid precipitation of milk proteins
The whey is produced by adding an acid, e.g. citric acid, to the milk and the milk proteins are precipitated.
This process can be described as halal, as only one acid is used. The production of lactose from this whey is halal.

2. Process: enzymatic cleavage of milk proteins
Enzymes are added to the milk that cause the milk proteins to coagulate and precipitate (the milk curdles). The milk proteins are used to make cheese. The whey produced as a by-product can be used as a raw material for lactose production. In this case the following has to be questioned:
1. Have animal enzymes (here calf rennet) been processed? If so, was the animal (here the calf) slaughtered?
2. Have microbially produced enzymes been processed? If so, are the culture media halal? So they don't contain pork peptones or other critical products?

The lactose obtained is used in the confectionery, baked goods and pastry industries.


? Q: Does Wirgley's chewing gum contain any animal substances?

! A: Yes, Wrigly chewing gum products can contain animal substances. Since we have no information about a Halal certification of the production at this time, such products should be avoided.

Here is the original answer from the PR department at Wrigly in the USA:


Thank you for visiting our web site,, to ask if we Use any animal-derived ingredients in the manufacturer of Wrigley's gum. We
appreciate your interest in our product. At one time, Wrigley products were made with vegetable-or mineral-derived softening ingredients.

However, the availability of these types of softeners decreased several years ago when major sources closed their manufacturing facilities. Since
we can no longer guarantee that all Wrigley brands from all of our factories will always be made with vegetable-or mineral-derived softeners,
Our products may not always be acceptable for your diet. We're sorry that you may not be able to chew Wrigley's gum, but we appreciate your
contacting us so that we can give you the facts.

Sincerely yours,
Denise Young
Consumer Affairs Department


? Q: What are gelling agents and do gelling agents contain pig substances?

! A: Gelling agent (similar to the thickening agent) is a means for gelling / thickening liquids and is either of vegetable or animal origin with the property of being able to bind water. They form a gelatinous mass and give sauces, yoghurts and other foods, for example, a firmer consistency.

The class of gelling agents includes:

- gelatine (or edible gelatine, animal-friendly!)

- pectin (vegetable)

- agar-agar (vegetable)

- Carob and guar gum (vegetable)

- Modified starch (vegetable, but can be genetically modified)

- tragacanth (E413, vegetable)

- gum arabic (vegetable)

- Alginate (E401 to E404, vegetable)

- Carrageenans (E407, vegetable).

The classic gelling agent gelatine is not considered an additive according to the law and is listed as an ingredient in the list of ingredients as "gelatine"
or "edible gelatine". Gelatine is made from animal connective tissue or from animal bones. Gelatin should be avoided unless it is the product of halal slaughtered animals.

Since the German food laws give manufacturers a lot of leeway in processing their products and materials, you should
To be sure, ask the manufacturer whether the gelling agent in question is of animal or vegetable origin, unless the product has a trustworthy Halal label.



? Q: Is tartaric acid halal?

! A: Most of the processes known to us are based on the separation of the tartaric acid during the wine fermentation (e.g. the settling of the yeast deposits) or from the pomace. When extracted from tartar (crystalline deposit), the tartaric acid is chemically modified (reaction with acid) and then washed with pure water and dried as a final step. Accordingly, tartaric acid is classified as Halal.

By the way, not all tartaric acid is obtained from tartar; there are also chemical manufacturing processes, but they are much more expensive. The above assessment does not replace Halal certification by independent experts, which we also consider useful for this raw material.


? Q: Is it safe to eat butter?

! A: Pure butter can be consumed without hesitation.

If other substances are added to the butter during production, these must be listed on the list of ingredients in accordance with the statutory provisions.

Semi-fat and mildly acidified butters can, however, have been produced with the help of the rennet enzyme. This is normally obtained from calf stomachs of non-halal slaughtered calves. When using other enzymes, the question of genetic manipulation (GMO) also arises.

? Q: What is gelatin made of?

! A: Numerous manufacturers use gelatine as a raw material to produce their fruit gum products. Edible gelatine usually consists of around 90% pork and around 10% beef. Since the BSE crisis, most manufacturers have only been using pure pig gelatine or have completely dispensed with animal gelatine and have resorted to natural substances such as agar-agar.

Pork gelatine is often used when the product is to have a certain chewing consistency. Because pork gelatine makes the product more solid overall, i.e. more consistent. Other types of gelatin (beef gelatin, fish gelatin, etc.), on the other hand, are generally softer in their consistency - therefore, for example, there are fewer or hardly any products with "pure beef gelatin".

A detailed DNA analysis of gelatine has already been commissioned and will be presented to our readers shortly.

Haribo, for example, produces a number of products that are said to be free from animal gelatine and that, according to Haribo, are also suitable for consumption by Muslims. For laypeople and especially for Muslim children, this is usually difficult to verify, especially since haram substances can also be contained in aromas or other ingredients. In addition, studying the list of ingredients, which has already developed into a popular sport among Muslims, is known to not give much in terms of halal / haram. That is why the Islamological Institute advises manufacturers to have their products halal certified.

Manufacturing information: gelatine