What is the inspection method

Introspection

Introspection, the "look inside", a psychological method which on the one hand is indispensable as direct access to one's own world of consciousness and experience (inner reality), but on the other hand cannot be considered a scientific method if its characteristic is the verifiability by other viewers becomes. Introspection, i.e. the direct recording of the experience and the processes of consciousness, can be distinguished from introspection as controlled introspection, which uses systematic reports (thinking aloud) and secondary evaluable records. There are self-observations, which in principle can also be checked by other people, e.g. about one's own behavior, physical changes, certain events.
The scientifically and methodologically insurmountable contradiction between private and public, subjective and objective areas runs through the history of scientific psychology. In the humanities tradition of psychology, especially in the "understanding" method and in the "phenomenological" approach (in the sense of Husserl's eidetic reduction), the inner perception, the intentionally directed consciousness processes and the experienced corporeality (interoception) form the actual basis of psychology. While in the behavioral science of the behaviorist tradition (Watson, Skinner; behaviorism) the introspective method (Introspectionism) is waived, from another point of view the demand for one remains epistemological subject model (Groeben) exist. A liberal attitude of both-and-also seems to be widespread in contemporary psychology, with a greater degree of uncertainty and the possibility of distortion of introspection being generally assumed. This does not only apply to influencing a psychological process (emotion or thought; thinking) through the introspective focus of attention on this process, but also to systematic distortions. It is psychologically plausible, if not easy to prove, that statements made introspectively (Self-disclosure) can be influenced by implicit concepts, conventional schemes and individual attitudes or prejudices, certain judgment heuristics and causal interpretations. However, the fundamental difficulties in examining and justifying introspective statements should not allow us to overlook the fact that valid relationships can exist. This may not only be certain in individual cases, but can also be shown, for example, experimentally in a double-blind experiment if a distinction can be made between certain classes of psychotropic drugs on the basis of subjective changes in state of health and mood.

J.F.