How central were the Muslim caliphates


the institution of the secular-religious ruler in the muslim. World. The caliph (from Arabic khalīfat rasūl allāh, "representative of the Messenger of God") is also referred to as amīr al-muʾminīn ("prince of believers") or imām ("prayer leader"). A first theory of K. offers al-Māwardī (974-1058) in his work al-Aḥkām as-sulṭānīya ("The rules of rule"). Accordingly, the caliph is responsible for enforcing the law, defending and expanding the territory, distributing booty and alms, and overseeing the government. He is the guardian of the faith and is bound by the Sharia in his actions. According to theory, the caliph is elected; other votes allow him to appoint a successor. The election of the caliph is confirmed by recognition (Arabic baiʿa). Theoretically. can he be deposed if he violates Sharia law. The K. came into being after the death of the Prophet Muḥammad when Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUthmān and ʿAlī were acclaimed to be the leader of the muslim. Community were appointed. They were commonly referred to as the "four rightly guided caliphs". According to the Shiites, the K. was created specifically for ʿAlī, which is why they reject the first three caliphs as well as the caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus (661-750) and the ʿAbbasids in Baghdad (750-1258). The ʿabbasid have lost since the 10th century. Caliphs are increasingly giving their power to the Amirs, militarily. Leaders and provincial governors, which reduced the authority of the caliphs on legal and spiritual matters. According to the Seljuk. The conquest of Baghdad by Tughril Beg in 1057 created the office of sultan for him, thus institutional confirmation of the division of power that had already been laid out. Descendants of the Abbasids were used by the Mamluks in Cairo to legitimize their rule until 1517. The osman. Istanbul rulers later sought to be regarded as amīr al-muʾminīn, but did not officially make this claim. These uncertainties contributed to the fact that the Indian Mughals could claim the title for themselves in the 16th and 17th centuries. The end of the Mughal Empire in 1857 oriented the Muslim. Indians on the K. in Istanbul as the center of the only independent Muslim empire in this phase of colonialism. The osman. Sultan Abdülhamid II (r. 1876-1909) claimed in the context of his panislam. State ideology the title of caliphate. On the one hand, he wanted to be his absolutist. To legitimize rule, on the other hand, after losing territory to Russia, he tried in vain to gain religious leadership over the Muslim there. Keep population. In 1922 the Turkish National Assembly first abolished the sultanate, in 1924 it deposed the last Caliph Abdülmecid and thus ended the competition and nationalist. Ideas prevented consensus on the continuation of K., King Ḥusain (ruled 1916 - 1924) from the Hejaz (Arab. Peninsula) could find little support in his attempt to establish himself as a caliph. Egypt. Scholars tried in vain to make King Fuʾād caliph. Various congresses muslim. Scholars couldn't solve the problem either. At the moment the idea of ​​K. is still in utopia. Concepts of the state Islamist. More intellectual than an idealist. Form one, at times democratic. legitimized, secular-religious leadership intended within the framework of an egalitarian islam. Global society should ensure justice.

Kennedy, H .: The Caliphate. From Muhammad's Death to the 'Islamic State', 2017.

Christian Szyska, M. A., Bonn, Oriental Studies

Source: Elger, Ralf / Friederike Stolleis (eds.): Kleines Islam-Lexikon. History - everyday life - culture. Munich: 6th, updated and expanded edition 2018.