What are some examples of allophones


Realization variant of a phoneme (phoneme), which arises in particular from individual or regionally determined different articulations. In German, these are mainly regional variants, e.g. the "Zungenspitzen-r" (alveolares [r]) and the "suppository r" (uvulares [R]). These allophones are also referred to as free or facultative variants and are to be distinguished from the combinatorial or positional variants. An example of a combinatorial A. is the different phonetic realization of the / g / in Magdeburg: after a deep vowel [ɐ] as [x] and after Liquid [ʁ] as [ç]: [mɐχdəbɔʁç].

Allophones can be understood as different phones (Phon) that realize a phoneme. They have no grammatical or phonemic function, but they can take over in the course of language development. For example, it is assumed that ablaut, umlaut and refraction initially appeared as allophones and were only later grammaticalized and systematically expanded through analogies.

Lit .: Altmann, H./Ziegenhain, U., Phonetics, Phonology and Graphics for the Exam. 2002. Becker, Th., Introduction to the Phonetics and Phonology of German. 2012. Hakkarainen, H.J., Phonetik des Deutschen. 1995. Hall, T. A., Phonology. An introduction. 2000. Kohler, K.J., Introduction to the Phonetics of German. 2., rework. Ed., 1995. Ramers, K.-H./Vater, H., Introduction to Phonology. 1991. Wiese, R., Phonetics and Phonology. 2011. UF