Why was Mozart born
Born and Lived - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart saw the light of day on January 27, 1756 as the seventh child of Leopold and Anna (née Pertl) Mozart. In the baptismal register of the cathedral parish he was registered under the name "Joannes Chrysostomos Wolfgangus Theopilus Pergmayr". He did not take the name "Wolfgang Amadeo" until 1770 on his first trip to Italy.
Besides his sister Maria Anna ("Nannerl"), born in 1751, he was the only child who survived the first year of life. Actually, he would have been the seventh child of his parents. The father, an important music teacher, recognized his son's outstanding talent and enthusiasm for music at an early age. From the age of 4 he taught Wolfgang specifically in music, later also in other subjects. Mozart made his first public appearance in Salzburg as early as 1761. The father then had Mozart and his sister Nannerl perform as a musical "child prodigy". The first concert tour took her to Munich in January 1762 to the Bavarian Elector Maximilian II. Another took Mozart (September to December 1762) via Passau and Linz to Vienna, where the famous performance before Empress Maria Theresa took place (October 13, 1762): "Wolferl jumped on the Kayserin 's lap, got her around the neck and kissed her rightly," wrote the proud father to his landlord Hagenauer in Salzburg.
The brother Leopold Mozart, Prince Archbishop Sigismund Christoph Graf von Schrattenbach, supported the travel activities of the Mozarts with his benevolence. On February 28, 1763, he even appointed his father vice conductor. The great trip to Western Europe began in June, which took the Mozarts to Germany, the Netherlands, France, England and Switzerland, and which was another great success.
The first trip to Paris (November 1763 to April 1764) in particular was a triumphant success for the young Wolfgang. Here the Mozarts were "gracious" at the court of Louis XV. received, and there the first works (2 sonatas, KV 6 and 7) appeared in print. The second highlight of this almost 3 1/2 year tour was the stay in London (April 1764 to July 1765), where they were also received several times at court (King George III). During this trip Wolfgang made many contacts with contemporary musicians, the strongest influence coming from Johann Christian Bach (London). Mozart continued to develop musically. His first symphonies were also written in London.
After his return to Salzburg (November 29, 1766) Mozart continued his composing activity. Among other things, the Latin school comedy "Apollo and Hyacinthus" KV 38 and the 1st part of the oratorio "The debt of the first commandment" KV 35 were made. From September 1767 to January 1769, the 2nd trip to Vienna took place.
Mozart successfully conducted his "Orphanage Mass" KV 139 (47 a) and performed "Bastien and Bastienne" KV 50 (46 b) in the house of the famous doctor Franz Anton Mesmer, but could not really gain a foothold at court.
"La finta semplice" KV 51 (46 a), suggested by Emperor Joseph II, was not performed at court despite Christoph Willibald Gluck's patronage. A theatrical intrigue against the young composer prevented this. (The opera buffa was probably only performed in Salzburg in May 1769.)
In 1769 Mozart was appointed (unpaid) concertmaster of the Salzburg court music. After another barely a year in Salzburg, father and son Mozart started their first trip to Italy. Concerts were given in the big cities (Verona, Milan, Florence, Rome, Naples) and at the invitation of nobles. Mozart enjoyed great success throughout and also received the intended lucrative composition commissions (for Padua, Milan, Venice, ...). He passed the famous examination with Padre G. B. Martini, met Piccini, Sammartini and the castrato Farinelli. In Rome, Mozart was accepted into the order of the Golden Spur (in the high rank of a knight). His opera "Mitridate, Rè di Ponto" KV 87 (74 a) was performed 22 times in October 1770 in Milan. In March 1771 Mozart returned to Salzburg.
Two shorter trips to Italy followed over the next two years - from August to December 1771 and from October 1772 to March 1773. The oratorio "La betulia liberata" for Padua and the serenata "Ascanio in Alba" KV 111 for Milan were written on the second Travel. During his third stay in Italy, "Lucio Silla" KV 135 was performed in Milan.
Between the second and third trip to Italy there was a decisive change in Salzburg, which ultimately led to Mozart's move to Vienna. Sigismund von Schrattenbach, Prince Archbishop of Salzburg and Mozart's patron, died. His successor, Hieronymus Graf Colloredo, was no longer the baroque prince, but a representative of the Enlightenment. In addition, the new Prince Archbishop did not have the understanding of the Mozarts' travel activities like his predecessor. In addition, he introduced new regulations for church music, which restricted the composers' opportunities to develop. Since Mozart developed more and more into a free spirit, this sooner or later had to lead to a conflict with the archbishop and his ideas. For the next four years, Mozart stayed in Salzburg all the time, with the exception of trips to Vienna and Munich.
After returning from their third trip to Italy, the family moved from Getreidegasse to Makartplatz due to lack of space. The reason for the lower travel activity was probably Mozart's employment with Archbishop Hieronymus Graf Colloredo.
Mozart continued to develop his compositional technique, greatly influenced by his meeting with Joseph Haydn in Vienna and his preoccupation with the early Viennese classical music. In addition to the church music compositions required by his employer, instrumental music (symphonies, concerts, serenades) became more and more important in his work.
After he did not get a job in Munich (July to September 1773) or in Vienna (December 1773 to March 1774), Mozart asked to be dismissed in August 1777 in order to "seek his luck further".
Mozart's trip to Paris (September 1777 to January 1779) was overshadowed by misfortune and failure. His mother died on September 3, 1778 and the job he had hoped for did not materialize. Although his father Leopold was able to get Mozart reinstated as court organist (January 17, 1779), the later scandal was already foreseeable.
W. A. Mozart was unwilling to submit to the archbishop's strict service regulations. In March 1781 he traveled to Vienna on the instructions of the Prince Archbishop, where the conflict with his employer came to a head. After repeated arguments, Mozart was dismissed on June 8, 1781 with a kick from the chief kitchen master, Count Arco. Last year in Salzburg he wrote his opera seria "Idomeneo, Re di Creta" KV 366 (1780) for Munich, which was performed there at the end of the year.
Mozart quickly gained a foothold in Vienna and earned his living as an opera composer, piano virtuoso with his own compositions and as a teacher. From August he worked on the singspiel "Die Entführung aus dem Serail" KV 384 on behalf of Gottlieb Stephanie, with which he celebrated his first major opera success on July 16, 1782 in Vienna. Shortly afterwards the Haffner Symphony KV 385, a commissioned work on the occasion of the Adelung Sigmund Haffner the Younger (son of the Salzburg mayor), was finished.
On August 4, Mozart married without the consent of his father Constanze Weber. In the years up to 1785, W. A. Mozart composed mainly piano and chamber music, among others. the six string quartets dedicated to Joseph Haydn (KV 387, 421, 428, 458, 464, 465). Mozart is particularly successful with his piano concertos.
From the end of July to November 1783, Mozart stayed in Salzburg for the last time. Constanze should finally be introduced to the father. During this stay, the unfinished C minor Mass KV 427 (417a) was premiered on October 26th in the collegiate church of St. Peter under the direction of the composer. Constanze Mozart sang the soprano part. In the following year, the freethinker Mozart joined the Masonic lodge "Zur Charity".
From 1785 onwards, W. A. Mozart increasingly turned his oeuvre to opera. In collaboration with Lorenzo da Ponte, "Le Nozze di Figaro" KV 492 was created in 1785/86, which was premiered on May 1st in the Burgtheater.
In 1787 "Don Giovanni" KV 527 (2nd Da Ponte Opera) was completed. The composer also resumed his travel activities. He attended the premieres of his two operas in Prague and went to Prussia to the court of King Friedrich Wilhelm II. Mozart reached a new artistic and social high point, which led him to an exaggerated lifestyle. Although Mozart was appointed chamber musician at court on December 7th (800 guilders annually), he still had to borrow money several times. During this time the last symphonies (e.g. the "Jupiter Symphony" KV 551), numerous piano works and chamber music (including "A Little Night Music" KV 525 and the "Musical Fun" KV 522) were written.
Mozart was artistically and financially successful over the next few years. "Cosi fan tutte" KV 588, the third Da Ponte opera, was a great success, as was the "Magic Flute" KV 620 (1791). Only his coronation opera "La Clemenza di Tito" KV 621 (premiered on September 6, 1791 in Prague) was considered a failure by the court. Mozart's attempt to combine the baroque tradition of the festival opera with the new contemporary trends missed the court's taste. The Mozart family's debts rose rapidly. Despite the good earnings, the extravagance and commercial incapacity of the Mozart couple had a devastating effect on the financial situation.
Mozart fell ill in the late summer of 1791, but the situation was not yet serious. In the first days of December there was a dramatic deterioration that resulted in his death. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on December 5th in his apartment, Rauhensteingasse No. 8. There is much speculation about his death. "Heated Frieselfever" was named as the cause of death at that time, but he probably died of rheumatism, syphilis or failure.
In the last few weeks before his death, Mozart worked on his unfinished Requiem KV 626, about which there has been wild speculation to this day. The "mysterious" client has since been identified as Count Walsegg-Stuppach, who only wanted to adorn himself with foreign feathers.
Due to his inferior financial situation, Mozart was buried in a shaft grave (burial of the poor) at the St. Marxer Friedhof. The exact location of the grave could never be located. The honorary grave built later in Vienna's central cemetery is empty.
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